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  • residues
  • The amino acid sequence of human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein without known function, was determined by automated Edman degradations of the carboxymethylated polypeptide chain and of fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment and tryptic digestion after blocking of lysine residues. (pnas.org)
  • A novel mass spectrometric method to analyse the sequence of amino acid residues in oligopeptides is proposed. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acid residues in peptide molecules contain chain-like structures of identical CH dipoles (IR antennas), which acquire IR energy quanta by interaction with periodic Coulomb fields and accumulate vibration excitation energy. (hindawi.com)
  • Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of fructose-1,6-bis-phosphate aldolase from rabbit muscle has made it possible to assign the positions of the functional groups known to play specific roles in the catalytic activity, and also to locate the buried, exposed, and active site cysteine residues. (uniprot.org)
  • These forms differ by the presence or the absence of short (10 to 20 residues) peptides in various internal locations in the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme
  • This enzyme acts as the second step of a biochemical pathway initiated by the creation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, by means of the transfer of an acyl group from the sn-1 position of glycerophospholipid onto the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This peptide bond is resistant to cleavage by cellular peptidases and requires a specialized enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT), to metabolize γ-GC and GSH into its constituent amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel
  • Our new NEBNext® Ultra™ II FS DNA Library Prep Kit with novel fragmentation reagent meets the dual challenge of generating high quality next gen sequencing libraries from ever-decreasing input amounts AND simple scalability. (neb.com)
  • unique
  • This peptide coupling is unique in that it occurs between the amino moiety of the cysteine and the terminal carboxylic acid of the glutamate side chain (hence the name gamma-glutamyl cysteine). (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • A method for locating pattern matches in amino acids by use of various and sequential filters capable of determining inner sample pattern matches, inner group pattern matches, and word matching for purposes of further analysis or data mining. (google.com)
  • Instrumentation in amino acid sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • It also lacks the transphosphatidylation activity of phospholipase D that allows the creation of phosphatidyl alcohols rather than phosphatidic acid in the presence of ethanol or butanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • 4. The method for pattern matching according to claim 1 wherein said means for matching further includes a means for comparing scan numbers to sequence of common ions to be MS/MS. (google.com)
  • However
  • However, NAPE-PLD had no ability to produce detectable phosphatidic acid from phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine as is catalyzed by other phospholipase D enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (abcam.com)
  • Noncoding" sequences are not translated into proteins, and nucleic acids with such motifs need not deviate from the typical shape (e.g. the "B-form" DNA double helix). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these are believed to affect the shape of nucleic acids (see for example RNA self-splicing), but this is only sometimes the case. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-quadruplexes, also known as G4 DNA are secondary structures found in nucleic acids that are rich in guanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic Acids Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than natural sphingolipids, stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PPARα is expressed at high levels in liver, where activated PPARα promotes fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides, meaning that they are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acid groups (i.e. fatty acid tri-esters of glycerol). (hmdb.ca)
  • They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. (hmdb.ca)
  • www.cyberlipid.org, www.wikipedia.org)TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. (hmdb.ca)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • This diacylglycerol serves as the substrate for addition of the third fatty acid to make TAG. (hmdb.ca)
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Outside of gene exons, there exist regulatory sequence motifs and motifs within the "junk", such as satellite DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DmdA protein has since been further characterized from S. pomeroyi, as well as the transcriptional response of the dmdA gene to the presence of DMSP and the sequence diversity of the dmdA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the discovery of the dmdA gene, the gene sequence was used to establish that over half of marine bacteria, including both open-ocean and coastal bacteria, are capable of demethylating DMSP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definitive test is sequencing the whole Notch 3 gene, which can be done from a sample of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, it has been suggested that there may be a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis to defend against hyposalinity stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nox-dependent reactive oxygen species modulation by amino endoperoxides can induce apoptosis in high Nox4-expressing cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1999 phylogenetic analysis, based on cytochrome b sequences, found that it is closely related to H. gerrardi and H. imbricata, which form a sister species pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Many derivatives of this structure were screened using SELEX, but the chosen fluorophore, 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI), showed the best selective fluorescence with high quantum yield (0.72) when bound to the RNA sequence 24-2, deemed Spinach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In public databases, we identified sequences reported as human genes expressed in kidney mesangial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Almost identical sequences can be found across the animal kingdom, meaning that toolkit genes such as Hox must have evolved before the Cambrian radiation which created most of the animal body plans that exist today. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. The Dark Matter of the Genome: Operating Instructions for the Tool Kit The chapter describes how genes are switched on and off in a precisely choreographed time sequence and 3-dimensional pattern in the developing embryo, and how the logic can be modified by evolution to create different animal bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • notation
  • The fundamental idea behind all these notations is the matching principle, which assigns a meaning to a sequence of elements of the pattern notation: a sequence of elements of the pattern notation matches a sequence of amino acids if and only if the latter sequence can be partitioned into subsequences in such a way that each pattern element matches the corresponding subsequence in turn. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • GFP's fluorophore is made up of three cyclized amino acids within the beta-barrel structure: Serine65-Tyrosine66-Glycine67. (wikipedia.org)
  • tags
  • The fatty acids that are incorporated into TAGs are activated to acyl-CoAs through the action of acyl-CoA synthetases. (hmdb.ca)
  • group
  • The PEG spacer is attached to the matrix via an ethyl ether group which increases stability towards acid treatment and minimizes PEG-leaching. (rapp-polymere.com)
  • Description
  • Usually, however, the first letter is I, and both [RK] choices resolve to R. Since the last choice is so wide, the pattern IQxxxRGxxxR is sometimes equated with the IQ motif itself, but a more accurate description would be a consensus sequence for the IQ motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • pattern
  • In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • PROSITE allows the following pattern elements in addition to those described previously: The lower case letter 'x' can be used as a pattern element to denote any amino acid. (wikipedia.org)