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  • North America
  • In geographic terms, about 41% of the YHRD samples stem from Asia, 34% from Europe, 14% from Latin America, 5% from North America, 4% from Africa and 1% from Oceania/Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The YHRD defines six continental Metapopulations following the United Nations classification of geographical regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America, Oceania. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing Catholic and Protestant missionaries in North America can be a herculean task. (oxfordre.com)
  • These slaves, many of whom were born in Africa, number among the first people of African origin imported to the British colonies of North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek hali "sea", aiētos "eagle", leuco "white", cephalos "head") is a bird of prey found in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature bald eagles are distinguishable from the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the only other very large, non-vulturine bird in North America, in that the former has a larger, more protruding head with a larger beak, straighter edged wings which are held flat (not slightly raised) and with a stiffer wing beat and feathers which do not completely cover the legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bald eagle has sometimes been considered the largest true raptor (accipitrid) in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Currently, one of the major debates about the American peopling focuses on the number of populations that originated the biological diversity found in the continent during the Holocene. (blogspot.com)
  • The studies of craniometric variation in American human remains dating from that period have shown morphological differences between the earliest settlers of the continent and some of the later Amerindian populations. (blogspot.com)
  • This led some investigators to suggest that these groups-known as Paleomericans and Amerindians respectively-may have arisen from two biologically different populations. (blogspot.com)
  • By analogy, the term metapopulation is used in forensic genetics to describe a set of geographically dispersed populations with shared ancestry and continuing geneflow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In countries like USA, Brazil, UK or China which are characterized by strong population substructure national reference databases are often built on basis of a historical concept of ethnic affiliation, e.g. the US population is sub-structured in a Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian and Native American populations or UK differentiates English, Afro-Caribbean, Indo-Pakistani and Chinese. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, although evidence points to the fact that the individual genetic mutations that produced the ABO genes are quite ancient (1) this is trivial importance with regard to the actual demographics of the individual ABO blood groups in ancient populations. (dadamo.com)
  • The main populations are the 'Ladinos' (~60%), a term used in Central America (deriving from 'latino'), and especially in Guatemala, to refer to a mix of Native American and Spanish (and eventually of Africans), and the Maya or 'Indígena' (~40%), that constitutes the second most important group in the country. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present population structure results from compiled datasets after merging with the Human Genome Diversity Project and the Population Reference Sample studies, which consisted of 146 non-Jewish Middle Easterners (Druze, Bedouin and Palestinian), 30 northern Africans (Mozabite from Algeria), 1547 Europeans, and 653 individuals from other African, Asian, Latin American, and Oceanian populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Scientific analysis of human genomes from different parts of the world has shown that, on a global scale, modern humans divide genetically into seven continental populations: African, Middle Eastern, European, Central/South Asian, East Asian, Oceanian, and Native American. (fhid.com.au)
  • In order to determine a new subject's genetic ancestry, Parabon Snapshot analyzes tens of thousands of SNPs from a DNA sample to determine a person's percent membership in each of these global populations. (fhid.com.au)
  • Most other forensic ancestry systems use only a small number of SNPs and thus are limited to very coarse populations and cannot detect admixture between populations. (fhid.com.au)
  • Parabon's scientists have collected data from many published scientific articles, totalling more than 9,000 individuals with clearly defined ancestry from more than 150 populations around the world, as shown in the map. (fhid.com.au)
  • Efforts are ongoing to increase the representation of Native American populations. (fhid.com.au)
  • Academic research using hundreds of thousands of SNPs from across the genome has shown that human groups generally divide into seven continental populations, which have been established over the past 50,000 years during the migration out of Africa. (fhid.com.au)
  • The 150 populations collected as the ancestry background can thus be divided into these seven continental groups according to their origin. (fhid.com.au)
  • Snapshot takes a similar approach to identifying within-continental (regional) ancestry, although the local populations were identified through empirical analysis performed by our bioinformatics team. (fhid.com.au)
  • In an ancestry analysis, Snapshot will determine an individual's precise genetic origins, as well as whether there is any evidence of admixture (contribution from multiple populations). (fhid.com.au)
  • The vast majority of West Indian Americans are of African Afro-Caribbean descent, with the remaining portion mainly made up of multi-racials and Indo-Caribbean people, especially in the Guyanese and Trinidadian communities, where people of Indo-Caribbean descent make up a significant portion of the populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long and Kittles' objection is also methodological: according to them the FST is based on a faulty underlying assumptions that all populations contain equally genetic diverse members and that continental groups diverged at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarich and Miele have also argued that estimates of genetic difference between individuals of different populations understate differences between groups because they fail to take into account human diploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • humid contine
  • Breinigsville lies within the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa ), and experiences four distinct seasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Caspian has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthur A. Link (May 24, 1914 - June 1, 2010), 27th Governor of North Dakota According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Alexander has a semi-arid to humid continental climate, abbreviated "BSk" to "DFb" on climate maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • MtDNA lineages can be grouped together in a large mtDNA tree. (csa.us)
  • Phylogenetic features of mtDNA data also suggest a demographic scenario that is compatible with moderate local endogamy and isolation in the Maya combined with episodes of gene exchange between ethnic groups, suggesting an ethno-genesis in the Guatemalan Maya that is recent and supported on a cultural rather than a biological basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Europeans
  • But missions to the Indians played important roles in social, cultural, and political changes for Indians, Europeans, and Americans from the very beginning of contact in the 1500s to the present. (oxfordre.com)
  • immigrant
  • Breinigsville was named for George Ludwig Breinig (January 31, 1733 - May 12, 1812), a German immigrant who came to America on board the ship Lydia, arriving in Philadelphia on October 13, 1749. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Caribbean is the source of the United States' earliest and largest Black immigrant group and the primary source of growth of the Black population in the U.S. The region has exported more of its people than any other region of the world since the abolition of slavery in 1834. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also, due to cultural affinities with the Anglophone Caribbean, U.S. Virgin Islanders in the U.S. are considered part of the Caribbean American immigrant community. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s and 1970s
  • As American Indian activism grew increasingly militant in the late 1960s and 1970s, civil disobedience, demonstrations, and takeovers became the preferred tactics of "Red Power" organizations such as the National Indian Youth Council (NIYC), the Indians of All Tribes, and the American Indian Movement (AIM). (oxfordre.com)
  • Because of a high incidence of inter-Caribbean migration throughout the 1960s and 1970s, most native-born U.S. Virgin Islanders today are one or two generations removed from other Caribbean islands and would not necessarily define themselves as having "U.S. Virgin Islands ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • grew
  • Albeit, Caribbean immigration to the United States was relatively small in the first years of 19th century, it grew of significant manner after the American Civil War, in 1865, which brought about the abolition of slavery. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnicity
  • The Metapopulation structure built on basis of "ethnicity/linguistic affiliation" takes to a larger extent the ancestry of sampled individuals into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his debate with Wade, anthropologist Agustín Fuentes pointed out that "Wade uses cluster, population, group, race, sub-race, ethnicity in a range of ways with few concrete definitions, and occasionally interchangeably throughout the book. (andrewsullivan.com)
  • tens
  • The length of each run is determined partly by the number of generations since the common ancestor: offspring of cousin marriages have long runs of homozygosity (ROH), while the numerous shorter tracts relate to shared ancestry tens and hundreds of generations ago. (blogspot.com)
  • Snapshot uses tens of thousands of SNPs across the genome to obtain very precise estimates of ancestry, even for admixed individuals. (fhid.com.au)
  • differences
  • It is no surprise, then, that many of the distinctions between the blood groups involve basic functions of our digestive and immune systems.Evolution is usually considered in the context of millions of years, which is the time frame needed to explain the many differences between animals or other species. (dadamo.com)
  • African
  • Although she had assumed she was Hispanic, the reports of her DNA testing showed she is part Irish, part Scandinavian and part African, with some Native American ancestry as well. (csa.us)
  • West African" is not just a social construct, because West Africans are not an ethnic group. (gnxp.com)
  • Nations
  • In the 1982 Constitution Act, "Aboriginal" is used to refer to three distinct groups: the First Nations people, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. (ubc.ca)
  • Such efforts will no doubt continue into the unforeseeable future so long as the state of Native nations remains uncertain. (oxfordre.com)
  • tribes
  • This ethos manifested itself in the disastrous federal policies of termination and relocation, which sought to end federal services to recognized Indian tribes and encourage Native people to leave reservations for cities. (oxfordre.com)
  • Eastern Colorado was once home to many Native American tribes. (wikipedia.org)
  • peoples
  • In response, tribal leaders from throughout Indian Country formed the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in 1944 to litigate and lobby for the collective well-being of Native peoples. (oxfordre.com)
  • tribal
  • There, Warrups established a village of Native Americans who had become displaced from other tribal units. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, the state of Connecticut and other signatories disputed that the descendants of Warrups could be included in a proposed Schaghticoke Tribal Nation proposed for Connecticut, on grounds Chickens Warrups joined an existing group of Native Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. government denied tribal nation status for the Schaghticoke group, who hoped an affirmative decision would allow them to start the process of getting approval for a casino. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Each national Metapopulation in the YHRD comprises all individuals sampled in a particular country regardless of the ancestry of the individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edwards (2003) claims, "It is not true, as Nature claimed, that 'two random individuals from any one group are almost as different as any two random individuals from the entire world'" and Risch et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • Oceanians and Native Americans, for example, who are descended from relatively few founders because of the bottlenecks associated with crossing the Beringian/maritime voyages have an excess of short runs of homozygosity, but Native Americans also have long ones, suggestive of recent consanguinity. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, Tim Duncan is a St. Croix native with Anguillian ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Only in the last century have scientists and anthropologists begun using biological markers such as the blood groups in the search for humanity's imprint on our distant past. (dadamo.com)
  • Congress
  • During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, which had been captured by the British. (wikipedia.org)
  • linguistic
  • Currently the YHRD database recognizes four separate "metapopulation" structures: national, continental, linguistic/ethnic and phylogenetic affiliation with several categories within. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancestry" is a term collating historical, cultural, geographical and linguistic categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • The two groups had similar ages (11.1 vs 10.7 years), time to presentation (1.64 vs 1.85 days), and LOS (2.91 vs 2.90 days). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The idea that the RBU should take the form of a card catalogue came from the young American zoologist Herbert Haviland Field who was at the time himself setting up a bibliographical agency in Zurich, the Concilium Bibliographicum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence if you start off with a small number of a particular gene in a larger gene pool (such as the gene for blood group B in the gene pool for ABO blood type) and nothing other than random mating occurred, at the end of a period of time, you would still have a small number of B genes in the ABO gene pool. (dadamo.com)
  • Chickens Warrups (dates of birth and death unverified), in some accounts referenced as Chicken Warrups or Sam Mohawk, was a Native American who lived in the southwestern part of Connecticut in the late 17th century and 18th century, at the time colonial settlers were establishing town governments, church parishes, and farms in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • City
  • Originally called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright. (wikipedia.org)
  • The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first fully functional steamboat. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • This variation is usually calculated using Sewall Wright's fixation index (FST), which is an estimate of between to within group variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • My guess is that various aspects of the Mongoloid pattern existed in low frequency or as isolated tendencies across East Eurasia and America. (blogspot.com)
  • people
  • In an effort to scientifically determine their ancestry, millions of people around the world have taken a genetic DNA test. (csa.us)
  • Written during a tumultuous period in American history when many people expected the federal government to right social wrongs, the law was a monumental piece of legislation that changed the American employment landscape. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Civil War
  • During the American Civil War (1861-1865), York became the largest Northern town to be occupied by the Confederate army when the division of Major General Jubal Anderson Early spent June 28-30, 1863, in and around the town while the brigade of John B. Gordon marched to the Susquehanna River at Wrightsville and back. (wikipedia.org)
  • race
  • However, the golden eagle, averaging 4.18 kg (9.2 lb) and 63 cm (25 in) in wing chord length in its American race (A. c. canadensis), is merely 455 g (1.003 lb) lighter in mean body mass and exceeds the bald eagle in mean wing chord length by around 3 cm (1.2 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • There are three genetic markers on your DNA that can provide clues to your ancestry: one from your father, another from your mother and a third from both sides of the family (from familysearch ). (csa.us)
  • It is fascinating to note that virtually all the major infectious diseases that ran so rampant throughout our pre-antibiotic history have ABO blood group preferences of one group or another. (dadamo.com)
  • Redding's official town seal, dated 1714, depicts founder John Read under the boughs of a tree purchasing land from Chickens Warrups, with another settler and Native American in attendance. (wikipedia.org)
  • larger
  • American Indian activism after 1945 was as much a part of the larger, global decolonization movement rooted in centuries of imperialism as it was a direct response to the ethos of civic nationalism and integration that had gained momentum in the United States following World War II. (oxfordre.com)
  • together
  • and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) brought Native educators together to work for greater self-determination and culturally rooted curricula in Indian schools. (oxfordre.com)