• enslavement
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • colonial
  • Although their lives were circumscribed by numerous discriminatory laws even in the colonial period, freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. (loc.gov)
  • By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Americans, who are largely descended from Africans of the American colonial era, have lived and worked in France since the 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to McElroy, the artistic convention of representing African-Americans as less than fully realized humans began with Justus Engelhardt Kühn's colonial era painting Henry Darnall III as a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Kühn's work existed "simultaneously with a radically different tradition in colonial America" as indicated by the work of portraitists such as Charles (or Carolus) Zechel, (see Portrait of a Negro Girl and Portrait of a Negro boy) the market demand for such work reflected the attitudes and economic status of their audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literature, although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senegal
  • The overwhelming majority were taken from the area of western Africa stretching from present-day Senegal to Angola, where political and social organization as well as art, music, and dance were highly advanced. (britannica.com)
  • 15th
  • Notably, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a petition sent by African Americans to the Los Angeles Board of Education in 1872, the California Supreme Court ruled Ward v. Floor current segregation in educational practices as unconstitutional, breaching U.S. Constitution's 14th and 15th amendments. (wikipedia.org)
  • artisans
  • African farmers and artisans accompany Pedro Menendez de Aviles on the expedition that establishes the community of San Agustin (St. Augustine, Florida). (blackpast.org)
  • remain
  • The German Nazi invasion of Paris in June 1940 meant suppression of the "corrupt" influence of jazz in the French capital and danger of imprisonment for African Americans choosing to remain in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virginia
  • African American research in Virginia can be divided into two general time periods - before and after the Civil War . (familysearch.org)
  • This Wiki page describes research strategies, and major sources of information about African American families from Virginia . (familysearch.org)
  • Soon the first African slavers were bought to the new Province of Maryland by 1642 to develop the economy in a similar way to Virginia, with tobacco being the commodity crop, which was labor-intensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1980s
  • To reestablish "cultural integrity" in the late 1980s, Jesse Jackson proposed African American , which-unlike some "baseless" colour label-proclaims kinship with a historical land base. (britannica.com)
  • By the 1970s and 1980s, it had become common within African-American culture to invent new names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Museums
  • After the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • The state, and particularly the major cities of Memphis and Nashville have played important roles in African-American culture and the Civil Rights Movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely held that prior to the 1950s and 1960s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European-American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book Baby Names Now: From Classic to Cool-The Very Last Word on First Names places the origins of "La" names in African-American culture in New Orleans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1870
  • African American students in lower education increased from 24 in 1870 to 183 by the late 19th century, and ranked highest performing students in literacy subjects in 1900. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1930s
  • One of the earliest African-American bookstores to achieve national prominence was Lewis Michaux's National Memorial African Bookstore, which operated in Harlem from the early 1930s to the middle of the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • notable
  • Although Gates probes interesting material in exploring family histories of famous and notable African Americans, his interview/presentation style - alternatively sycophantic and like a droning university lecture - drains the life from this four-hour project. (variety.com)
  • The Harlem Renaissance was one of the most notable movements in African-American art. (wikipedia.org)