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  • blacks
  • Free African American Christians founded their own churches which became the hub of the economic, social, and intellectual lives of blacks in many areas of the fledgling nation. (loc.gov)
  • This paper and other early writings by blacks fueled the attack against slavery and racist conceptions about the intellectual inferiority of African Americans. (loc.gov)
  • Thousands of freed blacks, with the aid of interested whites, returned to Africa with the aid of the American Colonization Society and colonized what eventually became Liberia. (loc.gov)
  • Blacks were originally brought to America to serve as slaves in southeastern states on large-scale plantations. (conservapedia.com)
  • Blacks tended to support the Republican Party from the 1860s to the 1960s, but few who lived in the South voted--some states even stopped people of African ancestry voting by the use of literacy tests, poll taxes and other measures. (conservapedia.com)
  • The uninterrupted history of blacks in the United States began in 1619, when 20 Africans were landed in the English colony of Virginia. (britannica.com)
  • Changes in the main commodity crops to less labor-intensive crops after the American Revolutionary War numerous slaveholders freed their slaves by deed or in wills, so that the percentage of free blacks to the total number of blacks rose from less than one percent to 10 percent in the Upper South. (wikipedia.org)
  • African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home, segregation, migration, feminism, and more. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their identity in an individualized republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • enslavement
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • captives
  • One theory is that AAVE arose from one or more slave creole languages that arose from the Atlantic slave trade and the need for African captives, who spoke many different languages, to communicate among themselves and with their captors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hausa
  • An introductory course in the understanding, reading and speaking of Hausa, a language spoken by more than 70 million people in West Africa. (temple.edu)
  • colonial
  • Although their lives were circumscribed by numerous discriminatory laws even in the colonial period, freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. (loc.gov)
  • By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Americans, who are largely descended from Africans of the American colonial era, have lived and worked in France since the 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to McElroy, the artistic convention of representing African-Americans as less than fully realized humans began with Justus Engelhardt Kühn's colonial era painting Henry Darnall III as a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Kühn's work existed "simultaneously with a radically different tradition in colonial America" as indicated by the work of portraitists such as Charles (or Carolus) Zechel, (see Portrait of a Negro Girl and Portrait of a Negro boy) the market demand for such work reflected the attitudes and economic status of their audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literature, although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Puerto Rico
  • An introductory course in the understanding, reading, and speaking of Yoruba, an African language which has had a major impact on the African cultures of Brazil, Haiti, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the United States. (temple.edu)
  • culture
  • The state, and particularly the major cities of Memphis and Nashville have played important roles in African-American culture and the Civil Rights Movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely held that prior to the 1950s and 1960s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European-American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also quite common for immigrants and cultural minorities to choose baby names or change their names to fit in within the wider American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1970s and 1980s, it had become common within African-American culture to invent new names. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book Baby Names Now: From Classic to Cool-The Very Last Word on First Names places the origins of "La" names in African-American culture in New Orleans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15th
  • Notably, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a petition sent by African Americans to the Los Angeles Board of Education in 1872, the California Supreme Court ruled Ward v. Floor current segregation in educational practices as unconstitutional, breaching U.S. Constitution's 14th and 15th amendments. (wikipedia.org)
  • artisans
  • African farmers and artisans accompany Pedro Menendez de Aviles on the expedition that establishes the community of San Agustin (St. Augustine, Florida). (blackpast.org)
  • remain
  • The German Nazi invasion of Paris in June 1940 meant suppression of the "corrupt" influence of jazz in the French capital and danger of imprisonment for African Americans choosing to remain in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • It took full-page advertisements on November 23, 1922, in The New York Times , The Atlanta Constitution , and several other leading newspapers entitled "The Shame of America," with the subheading "3436 People Lynched 1889 to 1922. (loc.gov)
  • It includes people who are of full or partial African American background. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2015, the number of African-American residents has been estimated at around 3,000 people, a large portion of whom live in Accra. (wikipedia.org)
  • peoples
  • An overview of the cultural experience of African peoples. (temple.edu)
  • Designed to acquaint students with important historical and philosophical investigations of the creative process and to explore interrelationships, similarities, and differences in the various cultural expressions of African peoples. (temple.edu)
  • 1980s
  • To reestablish "cultural integrity" in the late 1980s, Jesse Jackson proposed African American , which-unlike some "baseless" colour label-proclaims kinship with a historical land base. (britannica.com)
  • white
  • Monday's observance of what would have been Martin Luther King Jr.'s 90th birthday is emerging as an important moment for Democrats eyeing the White House to talk about one of the most divisive issues in American politics: race. (ap.org)
  • Looking back to when white scholars first started studying folktales, they focused on British and Anglo-American folktales due to them thinking African Americans had a poverty-stricken literary tradition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many privileged African Americans in the North wanted their children taught with White children, and were pro-integration. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the post-Reconstruction era African Americans built their own schools so they didn't have White control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Museums
  • After the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • minority
  • However, a minority of linguists argue that the vernacular shares so many characteristics with African creole languages spoken around the world that it could have originated as its own English-based creole or semi-creole language, distinct from the English language, before undergoing a process of decreolization . (wikipedia.org)
  • Angola
  • The overwhelming majority were taken from the area of western Africa stretching from present-day Senegal to Angola, where political and social organization as well as art, music, and dance were highly advanced. (britannica.com)
  • Virginia
  • Soon the first African slavers were bought to the new Province of Maryland by 1642 to develop the economy in a similar way to Virginia, with tobacco being the commodity crop, which was labor-intensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slavery
  • In "From Slavery to Lady Liberty: Lady Liberty's African Connection: The Key to Black America's Liberation," he pointed out that the real Statue of Liberty wears a broken shackle around one ankle, and revisited evidence that the statue, a gift from France, was originally intended not to welcome immigrants but to celebrate the emancipation of slaves. (blogspot.com)
  • Child marriage should be seen as a form of modern slavery and is tantamount to sanctioning child rape, the African Union's goodwill ambassador said at a conference on ending the practice. (kff.org)
  • Jeroen Dewulf (1972 in Nieuwpoort, Belgium) is a Belgian scholar specializing in slavery and African-American culture, Dutch culture, the Dutch language, German Studies and Latin American Studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • amateurs
  • When American amateurs returned to the air on November 15, 1945, the DXCC award program was re-launched and has continued ever since. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the late 1920s into the 1970s, the Canadian Amateur often attracted many of the top American amateurs, several of whom carried the trophy south, including Dick Chapman, Frank Stranahan, Don Cherry, Harvie Ward, Allen Miller, Dick Siderowf, and George Burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • This is a pilot study with a cross-sectional research design to recruit Hispanic/Latina and African American adolescent and young adult women , aged 13-24 years to serve as index recruiters, who will in turn recruit members of her female friendship network, aged 13 years and older to undergo HIV screening. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The proposed pilot study will utilize a cross-sectional research design to recruit Hispanic/Latina and African American young women to undergo HIV screening. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • African-American women were sterilized against their will, many of them without their knowledge, while they were in a hospital for other reasons or sometimes even while serving a prison sentence. (wordpress.com)
  • Walter E. Ellis (June 24, 1960 - December 1, 2013), also known as the Milwaukee North Side Strangler, was an American serial killer who raped and strangled seven women in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin between 1986 and 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • The North Side Strangler victims were all African-American women. (wikipedia.org)
  • black
  • Banneker was America?s first black man of science. (writework.com)
  • scornful eye" - it would be almost a hundred years before another black writer would drop the mask of convention and write openly about the African-American experience. (writework.com)
  • Lift Every Voice and Sing" - often referred to as the "Black American National Anthem"- is a song written as a poem by James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) in 1900 and set to music by his brother John Rosamond Johnson (1873-1954) in 1905. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Vietnam War, Adams made propaganda broadcasts for Radio Hanoi from their Chinese office, telling black American soldiers not to fight: You are supposedly fighting for the freedom of the Vietnamese, but what kind of freedom do you have at home, sitting in the back of the bus, being barred from restaurants, stores and certain neighborhoods, and being denied the right to vote. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Sexually experienced females between the ages of 13 and 24 years old and of African American race, Hispanic/Latina ethnicity, or mixed-race/ethnicity, which must include African American race and/or Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Examples in this group include former countries such as Czechoslovakia and colonial areas such as French West Africa, or places such as Kingman Reef that are no longer far enough above sea level to qualify under the present DXCC rules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other leading Americans who competed but fell short include William C. Campbell, Jay Sigel, and Nathaniel Crosby. (wikipedia.org)
  • 113th Congress), if it passes during the 113th United States Congress, would update the Contraband Cigarette Trafficking Act to include American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam, which were previously not covered by the law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Office
  • We regret having to take this action," the bank said in a letter dated Jan. 27, a copy of which was provided by Oxfam America.Merchants Bank said the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), an independent bureau within the U.S. Treasury Department, had issued it with a so-called "consent order" instructing it to enhance its policies and procedures to detect potential violations of the law. (hiiraannet.com)
  • award
  • The award is granted by (and is a registered trademark of ) the American Radio Relay League. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010 Zafaa Award Best Actress Indigenous Asiri Award for excellence by Okpella Movement in the United State of America (USA)[citation needed] Afemiah Development Group award for best indigenous artist[citation needed] 2015 All Youths Tush Awards AYTA Role Model (Movie) Award She was married to producer and director Daniel Ademinokan, whom she met on set. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Adams' autobiography An American Dream: The Life of an African American Soldier and POW Who Spent Twelve Years in Communist China was posthumously published in 2007 by his daughter Della Adams and Lewis H. Carlson. (wikipedia.org)
  • south
  • The Canadian title has also been won by South African Reg Taylor (1962), New Zealanders Stuart Jones (1967) and Gareth Paddison (2001), Mexican Rafael Alarcon (1979), and Australian Gary Simpson (1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, one Briton and 23 American soldiers (along with 327 South Koreans) also refused to be returned to their homelands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly before the deadline was about to expire, Americans south of the Korean Demilitarized Zone broadcast a message to the defectors in Panmunjom, saying "We believe that there are some of you who desire repatriation. (wikipedia.org)
  • team
  • She was also the first American gymnast ever to win both the team and individual all-around gold at the same Olympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • His joining the team caused some controversy, as one of a few African-American baseball players in American colleges at this point, and he had to be held out of games occasionally because of protests by other teams. (wikipedia.org)