• West Africa
  • de Haas' 2007 International Migration Institute study "The myth of invasion: Irregular migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union" (PDF format) is well worth study. (blogspot.com)
  • The importance of immigration from sub-Saharan West Africa to North Africa, particularly but not only Saharan areas, is something de Haas brings out nicely. (blogspot.com)
  • At Ridván 1956 three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including North-West Africa which included Algeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956 at Ridván, a marked holy day of the religion and a day on which major elections are held, three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including that of North-West Africa with the chairmanship of Enoch Olinga In 1963 a survey of the community counted 1 assembly and 18 organized groups (between 1 and 9 adults) of Bahá'ís in Tunisia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956 at Ridván, a marked holy day of the religion and a day on which major elections are held, three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including that of North-West Africa with the chairmanship of Enoch Olinga covering Tunisia with its secretarial seat in Tunis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A regional National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was organized which included Morocco in 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was a member of the regional National Assembly of North and West Africa (1953-58), and, in her lifetime, Local Spiritual Assemblies in five countries-including Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • A regional National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was organized in 1962-3 including the merging countries of French, Spanish Morocco and the Moroccan International Zone centered on Tangiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • East Africa
  • Operations on the Northern front, East Africa, 1940 in the Second World War, were conducted by the British in Sudan and the Italian Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana in Eritrea and Ethiopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • General Archibald Wavell, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of Middle East Command, had about 86,000 troops at his disposal for Libya, Iraq, Syria, Iran and East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • British policy was to ensure the safety of shipping in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and operations in East Africa were given second priority after Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 9 May 1936, the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaimed Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI Italian East Africa), formed from the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, which had been occupied after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-1936). (wikipedia.org)
  • On 10 June, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France, which made Egypt vulnerable to the forces in Libia Italiana, part of Africa Settentrionale Italiana (ASI) and those in the AOI a menace to the British and French colonies in East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italian belligerence led to the closure of the Mediterranean to Allied merchant ships and endangered British supply routes along the coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and the Suez Canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1891, Germany secured the strategically critical territory of German East Africa, which along with the mountainous rainforest of the Belgian Congo precluded the building of a Cape-to-Cairo railway. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] East Africa has a network of narrow gauge 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) railways that historically grew from ports on the Indian Ocean and went westward, built in parallel under British and German colonial rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1940
  • In 1940 following a successful strike by European mine employees, violent clashes occurred in which 17 African miners were killed and 69 injured. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 June 1940, as the commander in chief of Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East African Armed Forces Command) and Generale d'Armata Aerea (General of the Air Force), Aosta had about 290,476 local and metropolitan troops (including naval and air force personnel) in the AOI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Libya
  • A tweet from migration researcher Heaven Crawley pointed me to Hein de Haas , a research based at Oxford whose expertise in migration in northern Africa makes him a perfect go-to person for insight on migration as it affects Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • His blog post "The real refugee crisis: African migrants trapped in Libya " . (blogspot.com)
  • Hundreds of thousands, perhaps over a million, mainly African migrants remain trapped in Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • Although there is still a lack of verifiable information, an increasing number of reports suggest that African migrants inside Libya have fallen victim to violence, robbery, imprisonment and, allegedly, murder. (blogspot.com)
  • First of all, sub-Saharan Africans are among the poorest migrants in Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • establishment
  • In 1945 the new British Labour government decided to encourage the establishment of African trade unions in the British African colonies, and advisors from the British Trade Union Congress were sent to Northern Rhodesia to facilitate the process of establishing the unions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strength and militancy of the AMU led the government and mining companies to support the establishment of a rival union for skilled African workers in 1953, the Mines African Staff Association (MASA). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] After World War II, the decolonisation of Africa and the establishment of independent countries removed the colonial rationale for the project and increased the project's difficulty, effectively ending the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Middle East
  • He manages sales teams in Stockholm, Amsterdam, London, Dublin, Luxembourg, Channel Islands and the Middle East, responsible for offering the breath of Northern Trust's asset servicing and capital markets solutions to both asset owner and asset manager communities. (northerntrust.com)
  • native
  • Over a quarter of the freshwater plant species native to northern Africa are used directly by people in the region, and more than 20% of these utilised species are threatened with regional extinction. (iucn.org)
  • Trade union organisation among African mineworkers was first initiated in 1935, when workers spontaneously struck over an increase in the native tax levied on Africans living in urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found mostly in Africa, Europe, and Eurasia, but is also native to a few locales in Mexico and the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • List
  • The aim of this study is to link IUCN Red List data on the extinction risk for 877 species across northern Africa with information on these freshwater species' socio-economic value, and to evaluate levels of dependence on wetland services. (iucn.org)
  • This means getting him on the list, on the surface something most officials will feel is non-controversial, will mean putting something in Northern Africa to kill him. (antiwar.com)
  • Links
  • An inquiry, known as the Branigan Report, was established to investigate possible links between African nationalist groups and the AMU. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • In 1947 and 1948 unions were formed at all four major copper mines in Northern Rhodesia, and these merged to form the African Mineworkers' Union in 1949, receiving recognition from the mining companies in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • In the 1950s the major mining companies, with the support of the Colonial Office, began attempting to replace the skilled European mineworkers with African workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the aim of a major strike in January 1955, in which 28,885 out of 34,000 African workers took part. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most sections of the Cape to Cairo railway are in operation, a major part is missing between northern Sudan and Uganda. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • This is the first time that a study conducted at the species level collates and integrates information on the socio-economic value of freshwater species and the threats to those species in Northern Africa. (iucn.org)
  • The African miners returned to work without achieving their initial aim of an increase in wages of ten shillings and eightpence per shift, however a smaller increase was awarded some time later. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highlight 2008 for Hachlaf was a fourth-place finish at the 2008 African Championships, where she finished in a time of 2:04.74 behind Agnes Samaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Douglas joined Northern Trust in 2008 and has over 19 years of business development experience, the last seven of which have been spent in the banking and asset servicing industry. (northerntrust.com)
  • Up to the break-up of the East African Community in 1977, these companies operated as East African Railways, but operate today as different national companies: the Uganda Railways Corporation Uganda railways corporation's assets were sold over 13 years ago when government failed to run the corporation, as the cost of running it was greater than the returns. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • In September 1955 a formal agreement was reached, with 24 job classes transferred to African workers, with further advancement of African miners to be reviewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to the expectations of the Northern Rhodesian Government and mining companies, the AMU sought increases in wages for all mineworkers, rather than focussing solely on further breaking down the colour bar. (wikipedia.org)
  • British
  • In 1947 the British government had established the Dalgleish Commission to investigate the colour bar, and the Commission recommended the gradual replacement of European workers with Africans, initially in low-skilled occupations, but gradually filling other positions after training. (wikipedia.org)
  • largest
  • These include the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), the largest single optical telescope in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • support
  • Freshwater ecosystems in northern Africa, like others throughout the world, support species that are of direct socio-economic importance to local communities, providing products such as food, construction and craft material, and medicines. (iucn.org)
  • European
  • In 1947 the existing union representing European miners, the Northern Rhodesia Mine Workers' Union (NRMU), suggested that the African workers join, but this was rejected by the African miners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dalgliesh Commission recommended that positions be filled with African workers only when vacant, so that no European workers were displaced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1951 the NRMU signed an agreement with the AMU that any African worker replacing a white worker must be paid and housed to the same standard as the European employee. (wikipedia.org)
  • attempt
  • The NRMU strongly resisted any attempt to transfer jobs to the African workers, relying on a clause in their agreement with the companies that prevented jobs being filled by workers not covered by the existing contract. (wikipedia.org)