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  • West Africa
  • de Haas' 2007 International Migration Institute study "The myth of invasion: Irregular migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union" (PDF format) is well worth study. (blogspot.com)
  • The importance of immigration from sub-Saharan West Africa to North Africa, particularly but not only Saharan areas, is something de Haas brings out nicely. (blogspot.com)
  • At Ridván 1956 three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including North-West Africa which included Algeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956 at Ridván, a marked holy day of the religion and a day on which major elections are held, three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including that of North-West Africa with the chairmanship of Enoch Olinga In 1963 a survey of the community counted 1 assembly and 18 organized groups (between 1 and 9 adults) of Bahá'ís in Tunisia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956 at Ridván, a marked holy day of the religion and a day on which major elections are held, three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including that of North-West Africa with the chairmanship of Enoch Olinga covering Tunisia with its secretarial seat in Tunis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A regional National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was organized which included Morocco in 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was a member of the regional National Assembly of North and West Africa (1953-58), and, in her lifetime, Local Spiritual Assemblies in five countries-including Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • A regional National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was organized in 1962-3 including the merging countries of French, Spanish Morocco and the Moroccan International Zone centered on Tangiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • East Africa
  • Operations on the Northern front, East Africa, 1940 in the Second World War, were conducted by the British in Sudan and the Italian Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana in Eritrea and Ethiopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • General Archibald Wavell, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of Middle East Command, had about 86,000 troops at his disposal for Libya, Iraq, Syria, Iran and East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • British policy was to ensure the safety of shipping in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and operations in East Africa were given second priority after Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 9 May 1936, the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaimed Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI Italian East Africa), formed from the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, which had been occupied after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-1936). (wikipedia.org)
  • On 10 June, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France, which made Egypt vulnerable to the forces in Libia Italiana, part of Africa Settentrionale Italiana (ASI) and those in the AOI a menace to the British and French colonies in East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italian belligerence led to the closure of the Mediterranean to Allied merchant ships and endangered British supply routes along the coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and the Suez Canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1891, Germany secured the strategically critical territory of German East Africa, which along with the mountainous rainforest of the Belgian Congo precluded the building of a Cape-to-Cairo railway. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] East Africa has a network of narrow gauge 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) railways that historically grew from ports on the Indian Ocean and went westward, built in parallel under British and German colonial rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1940
  • In 1940 following a successful strike by European mine employees, violent clashes occurred in which 17 African miners were killed and 69 injured. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 June 1940, as the commander in chief of Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East African Armed Forces Command) and Generale d'Armata Aerea (General of the Air Force), Aosta had about 290,476 local and metropolitan troops (including naval and air force personnel) in the AOI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Libya
  • A tweet from migration researcher Heaven Crawley pointed me to Hein de Haas , a research based at Oxford whose expertise in migration in northern Africa makes him a perfect go-to person for insight on migration as it affects Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • His blog post "The real refugee crisis: African migrants trapped in Libya " . (blogspot.com)
  • Hundreds of thousands, perhaps over a million, mainly African migrants remain trapped in Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • Although there is still a lack of verifiable information, an increasing number of reports suggest that African migrants inside Libya have fallen victim to violence, robbery, imprisonment and, allegedly, murder. (blogspot.com)
  • First of all, sub-Saharan Africans are among the poorest migrants in Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • Servicing
  • Douglas joined Northern Trust in 2008 and has over 19 years of business development experience, the last seven of which have been spent in the banking and asset servicing industry. (northerntrust.com)
  • He manages sales teams in Stockholm, Amsterdam, London, Dublin, Luxembourg, Channel Islands and the Middle East, responsible for offering the breath of Northern Trust's asset servicing and capital markets solutions to both asset owner and asset manager communities. (northerntrust.com)
  • establishment
  • In 1945 the new British Labour government decided to encourage the establishment of African trade unions in the British African colonies, and advisors from the British Trade Union Congress were sent to Northern Rhodesia to facilitate the process of establishing the unions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strength and militancy of the AMU led the government and mining companies to support the establishment of a rival union for skilled African workers in 1953, the Mines African Staff Association (MASA). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] After World War II, the decolonisation of Africa and the establishment of independent countries removed the colonial rationale for the project and increased the project's difficulty, effectively ending the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • native
  • Over a quarter of the freshwater plant species native to northern Africa are used directly by people in the region, and more than 20% of these utilised species are threatened with regional extinction. (iucn.org)
  • Trade union organisation among African mineworkers was first initiated in 1935, when workers spontaneously struck over an increase in the native tax levied on Africans living in urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found mostly in Africa, Europe, and Eurasia, but is also native to a few locales in Mexico and the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • List
  • The aim of this study is to link IUCN Red List data on the extinction risk for 877 species across northern Africa with information on these freshwater species' socio-economic value, and to evaluate levels of dependence on wetland services. (iucn.org)
  • This means getting him on the list, on the surface something most officials will feel is non-controversial, will mean putting something in Northern Africa to kill him. (antiwar.com)
  • areas
  • It is one of the major wool-producing centers in the Ubuntu Local Municipality of the Pixley ka Seme District Municipality and one of the largest garlic-producing areas in South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Links
  • An inquiry, known as the Branigan Report, was established to investigate possible links between African nationalist groups and the AMU. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • In 1947 and 1948 unions were formed at all four major copper mines in Northern Rhodesia, and these merged to form the African Mineworkers' Union in 1949, receiving recognition from the mining companies in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • In the 1950s the major mining companies, with the support of the Colonial Office, began attempting to replace the skilled European mineworkers with African workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the aim of a major strike in January 1955, in which 28,885 out of 34,000 African workers took part. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Up to the break-up of the East African Community in 1977, these companies operated as East African Railways, but operate today as different national companies: the Uganda Railways Corporation Uganda railways corporation's assets were sold over 13 years ago when government failed to run the corporation, as the cost of running it was greater than the returns. (wikipedia.org)
  • British
  • In 1947 the British government had established the Dalgleish Commission to investigate the colour bar, and the Commission recommended the gradual replacement of European workers with Africans, initially in low-skilled occupations, but gradually filling other positions after training. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finish
  • The highlight 2008 for Hachlaf was a fourth-place finish at the 2008 African Championships, where she finished in a time of 2:04.74 behind Agnes Samaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • His addition would set a precedent that would mean a precipitous increase in US ambitions across northern Africa. (antiwar.com)
  • The African miners returned to work without achieving their initial aim of an increase in wages of ten shillings and eightpence per shift, however a smaller increase was awarded some time later. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • In September 1955 a formal agreement was reached, with 24 job classes transferred to African workers, with further advancement of African miners to be reviewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to the expectations of the Northern Rhodesian Government and mining companies, the AMU sought increases in wages for all mineworkers, rather than focussing solely on further breaking down the colour bar. (wikipedia.org)
  • largest
  • These include the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), the largest single optical telescope in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • support
  • Freshwater ecosystems in northern Africa, like others throughout the world, support species that are of direct socio-economic importance to local communities, providing products such as food, construction and craft material, and medicines. (iucn.org)
  • European
  • In 1947 the existing union representing European miners, the Northern Rhodesia Mine Workers' Union (NRMU), suggested that the African workers join, but this was rejected by the African miners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dalgliesh Commission recommended that positions be filled with African workers only when vacant, so that no European workers were displaced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1951 the NRMU signed an agreement with the AMU that any African worker replacing a white worker must be paid and housed to the same standard as the European employee. (wikipedia.org)
  • attempt
  • The NRMU strongly resisted any attempt to transfer jobs to the African workers, relying on a clause in their agreement with the companies that prevented jobs being filled by workers not covered by the existing contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • India
  • Shark meat is consumed regularly in Japan, India, Sri Lanka, areas of Africa and Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1952, African-American author J. Saunders Redding traveling in India was repeatedly asked questions about specific instances of civil rights abuse in the U.S., and the CRC petition was used by Indians to rebut his assertions that U.S. race relations were improving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zambia
  • But recently other southern African countries, including Botswana, Zambia and Namibia, have built ultra-luxe safari camps and lodges that compete with the world's best. (dailypress.com)
  • Sir Robert Edward Codrington (6 January 1869 - 16 December 1908) was the colonial Administrator of the two territories ruled by the British South Africa Company (BSAC) which became present-day Zambia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syria
  • It is a fact that the Assyrians, and later the Babylonians, and then Persians absorbed northern Syria into their empires during the 1st millennium BCE. (blogspot.com)
  • Centered on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The indigenous modern Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians (see Assyrian continuity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mexico
  • Hurricane Caroline was one of two tropical cyclones to affect northern Mexico during the 1975 Atlantic hurricane season. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Hurricane Center issued a hurricane watch for coastal sections of south Texas and northern Mexico on August 30. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a couple of hours, everything within 30° north and south of the equator turns to absolute zero (-273 °C) turning Florida, Mexico, Central America, most of South America and Africa into an ice desert. (wikipedia.org)
  • white
  • In the summer of 1905, Matthews joined the Burlington, Vermont baseball team of the Northern League, making him the only African-American in any white professional baseball league at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • His administration was influential in establishing British colonial government in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland and making them different in character from white-settler-led Southern Rhodesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1893 this force took part in the occupation of Matabeleland by white settlers, the overthrow of its ruler, Lobengula, and the taking of African land by force, which still has violent consequences in today's Zimbabwe. (wikipedia.org)
  • He encouraged African education and employed them in administration, he instigated indirect rule through local chiefs, and he opposed rule by white settlers, keeping it firmly in the hands of trained administrators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Europe
  • While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. (blogspot.com)
  • Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. (blogspot.com)
  • Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations. (blogspot.com)
  • most live in North Africa, from Morocco to Libya, but a couple hundred live in Gibraltar - the only primates other than humans native to Europe. (blogspot.com)
  • North
  • Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. (blogspot.com)
  • Washington arranged for Matthews to continue his study in the north, first at the Phillips Andover Academy, where he was the only African-American in his class of 97 students, and then in the fall of 1901 at Harvard University. (wikipedia.org)
  • Read
  • The rooms are so private and comfortable that it's tempting to skip a couple of game drives and lounge on the deck, read 'Out of Africa' and watch creatures cavort in the watering hole. (dailypress.com)
  • American
  • William Clarence Matthews (January 7, 1877 - April 9, 1928) was an early 20th-century African-American pioneer in athletics, politics and law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matthews joined the Bar association in 1908 and became one of the first African-American Assistant District Attorneys in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • His joining the team caused some controversy, as one of a few African-American baseball players in American colleges at this point, and he had to be held out of games occasionally because of protests by other teams. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at Harvard, his mentor was William Henry Lewis who at that point was the coach of the Harvard football team and the first African-American Assistant United States Attorney in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • 113th Congress), if it passes during the 113th United States Congress, would update the Contraband Cigarette Trafficking Act to include American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam, which were previously not covered by the law. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chorus of "Kum-A-Kye" is based upon the 19th-century American campfire song " The Old Chisholm Trail", which was brought to Southern Rhodesia by two cowboys familiar with the Texan Chisholm Trail, who had joined the British South Africa Police. (wikipedia.org)
  • The district encompasses 57 contributing buildings and 1 contributing object in a historically African-American section of Lynchburg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most African-American women were not convinced of a conspiracy, and rhetoric about race genocide faded. (wikipedia.org)
  • near
  • If all L3* in the Near East represents African migrants, then only the M and N macrogroups appeared in Eurasia, and a good case can be made for a "late" OoA event. (blogspot.com)
  • If that is the case, then the Near East will emerge as the origin of L3, with M, N representing Out-of-Near East-into-Eurasia founders, and the various L3*(xM, N) representing Out-of-Near East-into-Africa founders. (blogspot.com)
  • group
  • In this way he helped support education generally and establish a group of Nyasaland African administrators (though he kept them subordinate to the whites) who were influential there and in Northern Rhodesia. (wikipedia.org)