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  • excitatory pathways
  • From these results and corresponding ones on flexors (Holmqvist and Lundberg 1961) it is postulated that secondary afferents in addition to the weak monosynaptic connexions (Kirkwood and Sears 1975) have disynaptic excitatory pathways and trisynaptic inhibitory pathways to both flexor and extensor motoneurones. (springer.com)
  • There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • reflexes
  • These results demonstrate the important role of Kv1.1 in afferent chemosensory activity and suggest that mutations in the human Kv1.1 gene have functional consequences during stress responses that involve respiratory reflexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some processes involved in this pattern are caused by known reflexes, some with modulatory functions, often controlled by different autonomic pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • nucleus
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated Kv1.1 in the afferent limb of the carotid body chemoreflex (the major regulator in the response to hypoxia), consisting of the carotid body, petrosal ganglion, and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibition
  • It is postulated that these group II EPSPs are mediated by an interneuronal pathway from the FRA which also supply interneuronal pathways giving inhibition to extensor or/and flexor motoneurones and excitation to flexors as postulated by Eccles and Lundberg (1959) and Holmqvist and Lundberg (1961). (springer.com)
  • Their role in visceral pain remains to be determined, but they have shown promise in inhibition of the triggering of gastro-esophageal reflux, via an action on mechanosensory gastric afferents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transient inhibition of TrkB around the time of weak TBS to the second pathway diminished L-LTP in that pathway without affecting the first one. (jneurosci.org)
  • gastric
  • The pathways for gastric and gustatory (taste) processes are believed to terminate in different subdivisions of the parabrachial area, but still interact in the SN. (wikipedia.org)
  • tracts
  • The appearance of some axons exiting the main fiber tracts and exhibiting expanded growth cones suggests that afferent fiber extension was still underway [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1I OMITTED]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The efferent pathways include the cerebellorubral, dentatothalamic, and fastigioreticular tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • Again, depending on the stress and strain the muscles sustains, this afferent and efferent coordination will measure the "stretch of the spring" and communicate the results to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This open-loop hypothesis postulated that movements required attention only for initiation of the first action.p. 165 As such, each subsequent movement was thought to be automatically triggered by response-produced afferent information from the muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • The location of the DRG within this tract suggests that the DRG may function to integrate afferent information for the control of breathing. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • hypothesis
  • In contrast to the open-loop response-chaining hypothesis, Adams' closed-loop theory suggested that processing of afferent information was central in human motor control. (wikipedia.org)
  • weak
  • Induction of L-LTP by strong stimulation in one synaptic pathway converts weak TBS-induced E-LTP to L-LTP in a second, independent pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • activity
  • The afferent activity of this chemosensory pathway is initiated at oxygen-sensitive cells in the carotid body that lies in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pulmonary inflation afferent information inhibits pneumotaxic center respiratory activity. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • include
  • Evidence for the concept of motor programs include the following:p. 182 Processing of afferent information (feedback) is too slow for on-going regulation of rapid movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • There is strong evidence of biological connections between the neurochemical pathways used for the perception of both pain and pleasure, as well as other psychological rewards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, there are also the descending pathways for the modulation of pain sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • In addition to modulation, the cutaneous reflex has been shown to evoke both a MLR (medium latency response) and LLR (long latency response) EMG response, indicating that it is a polysynaptic reflex, involving spinal interneurons or supraspinal pathways Cutaneous nerves The cutaneous reflex has been attributed to functional responses to disturbances encountered during locomotion and is, therefore, dependent on which cutaneous nerve is stimulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the movement is towards the tallest stereocilia, the K+ cation channels open allowing K+ to flow into cell and the resulting depolarization causes the Ca++ channels to open, thus releasing its neurotransmitter into the afferent auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, peripherally administered NAGly inhibited phase 2 pain behavior, suggesting either a direct suppression of nociceptive afferents on the nerve or an indirect modulation of the afferents' interstitial environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). (nih.gov)
  • signals
  • This efference copy diverges, transmitted through two separate pathways, before the signals converge along with electrosensory input on Purkinje-like Medium Ganglion cells in the ELL. (wikipedia.org)
  • organization
  • These results indicated that CSPs exhibit area-specific modifications on an otherwise conserved synaptic organization, and that different afferents innervate M1-CSP dendritic domains in a source-specific manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT) concentration is critical for "normal" topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC) afferent circuits. (nih.gov)
  • excitatory
  • Electrophysiological dissection of the excitatory connectivity within these M1 ↔ S2 pathways has not yet been undertaken but has the potential to illuminate the cellular specificity at the level of single cells and their dendritic arbors across different layers, and also how these areas fit into the corticocortical hierarchy. (jneurosci.org)
  • brain
  • Hereby, he developed the hypothesis that the cerebral mechanisms controlling the movement of the hands interact within the brain with the afferent signal flow evoked in the mechanoreceptors while the grasping hand is moving across the surface of the object. (wikipedia.org)
  • understood
  • The biosynthetic pathway of N-arachindonoyldopamine is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact biosynthesis of NaGly is not completely understood, but there are two proposed pathways found in vitro for its biosynthesis: 1) enzymatically regulated conjugation of arachidonic acid and glycine and 2) the oxidative metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • central
  • Study showed that the perikarya and central terminals of vagal afferents are invariably enriched in CART and devoid of melanin-concentrating hormone (zeige PMCH ELISA Kits ) and that neuropeptidergic profile of the CART-positive vagal afferents is remarkably stable across the energy balance spectrum. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • open
  • degradation through the autophagy pathway and eventually leading to an open chromatin structure that facilitates efficient HR DSB repair. (jove.com)