• excitatory pathways
  • From these results and corresponding ones on flexors (Holmqvist and Lundberg 1961) it is postulated that secondary afferents in addition to the weak monosynaptic connexions (Kirkwood and Sears 1975) have disynaptic excitatory pathways and trisynaptic inhibitory pathways to both flexor and extensor motoneurones. (springer.com)
  • There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • reflexes
  • These results demonstrate the important role of Kv1.1 in afferent chemosensory activity and suggest that mutations in the human Kv1.1 gene have functional consequences during stress responses that involve respiratory reflexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some processes involved in this pattern are caused by known reflexes, some with modulatory functions, often controlled by different autonomic pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • thalamus
  • Like the pathways for pain and temperature, the message is relayed to the spinal cord, then crosses the midline and ascends via the lateral spinothalamic tract to the thalamus, and then finally travels to the cerebral cortex. (skintherapyletter.com)
  • Therefore, the damage in the thalamus causes miscommunication between the afferent pathway and the cortex of the brain, changing what or how one feels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Projections from the trigeminal nuclei to the thalamus are split into pathways designated lemniscal, extralemniscal, and paralemniscal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the lemniscal pathway, axons from the principal trigeminal nucleus cross over the midline and project to "barreloids" in the thalamus, specifically in the dorsomedial section of the ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPMdm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The paralemniscal pathway runs from the interpolar trigeminal nucleus via posterior nucleus (POm) of the thalamus to S2 and to diffuse targets in barrel cortex especially layer 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • tracts
  • The appearance of some axons exiting the main fiber tracts and exhibiting expanded growth cones suggests that afferent fiber extension was still underway [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1I OMITTED]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The efferent pathways include the cerebellorubral, dentatothalamic, and fastigioreticular tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • Bradley K, Eccles JC (1953) Analysis of the fast afferent impulses from thigh muscles. (springer.com)
  • Again, depending on the stress and strain the muscles sustains, this afferent and efferent coordination will measure the "stretch of the spring" and communicate the results to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This open-loop hypothesis postulated that movements required attention only for initiation of the first action.p. 165 As such, each subsequent movement was thought to be automatically triggered by response-produced afferent information from the muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • The term retinotopic refers to the maintenance of the particular order of afferent connections from the retina along the afferent pathway via sub-cortical structures to V1 and other cortical visual areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • limb
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated Kv1.1 in the afferent limb of the carotid body chemoreflex (the major regulator in the response to hypoxia), consisting of the carotid body, petrosal ganglion, and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibition
  • It is postulated that these group II EPSPs are mediated by an interneuronal pathway from the FRA which also supply interneuronal pathways giving inhibition to extensor or/and flexor motoneurones and excitation to flexors as postulated by Eccles and Lundberg (1959) and Holmqvist and Lundberg (1961). (springer.com)
  • Transient inhibition of TrkB around the time of weak TBS to the second pathway diminished L-LTP in that pathway without affecting the first one. (jneurosci.org)
  • suggests
  • The location of the DRG within this tract suggests that the DRG may function to integrate afferent information for the control of breathing. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • hypothesis
  • In contrast to the open-loop response-chaining hypothesis, Adams' closed-loop theory suggested that processing of afferent information was central in human motor control. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The afferent activity of this chemosensory pathway is initiated at oxygen-sensitive cells in the carotid body that lies in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pulmonary inflation afferent information inhibits pneumotaxic center respiratory activity. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • include
  • Evidence for the concept of motor programs include the following:p. 182 Processing of afferent information (feedback) is too slow for on-going regulation of rapid movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • There is strong evidence of biological connections between the neurochemical pathways used for the perception of both pain and pleasure, as well as other psychological rewards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, there are also the descending pathways for the modulation of pain sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The pathways for gastric and gustatory (taste) processes are believed to terminate in different subdivisions of the parabrachial area, but still interact in the SN. (wikipedia.org)