• lipid peroxidation
  • Administration of CCl 4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP enzymatic activities and lipid peroxidation products but decreased the cellular antioxidant activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in rats which were brought back to near normal levels by the treatment with Citrus macroptera . (springer.com)
  • GO is formed by lipid peroxidation and the degradation of monosaccharides, saccharide derivatives and glycated proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, MGO can also be formed as a side-product of different metabolic pathways (e.g., by enzymatic elimination of phosphate from glycerone phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or from 3-aminoacetone in the threonine catabolism, during lipid peroxidation and from the degradation of DNA) [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leucocytes counts, serum C-reactive protein, neutrophil, and serum lipid peroxidation and intracellular Ca2+ release levels were higher in active and inactive groups than in the control group, although their levels were lower in active group than in inactive group. (deepdyve.com)
  • AGEs
  • citation needed] In clearance, or the rate at which a substance is removed or cleared from the body, it has been found that the cellular proteolysis of AGEs-the breakdown of proteins-produces AGE peptides and "AGE free adducts" (AGE adducts bound to single amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • This protein is a member of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) family and is associated with many vascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane-bound VAP-1 releases an active, soluble form of the protein, which may be conducive to increased inflammation and the progression of many vascular disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ménétrier's disease) Burns (plasma loss in the absence of skin barrier) Redistribution (hemodilution [as in pregnancy], increased vascular permeability or decreased lymphatic clearance) Acute disease states (referred to as a negative acute-phase protein) Malnutrition and wasting Mutation causing analbuminemia (very rare) Hyperalbuminemia is an increased concentration of albumin in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living organisms, the free radicals superoxide and nitric oxide and their reaction products regulate many processes, such as control of vascular tone and thus blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Bleach, particularly sodium hypochlorite, has been shown to react with a microbe's heat shock proteins, stimulating their role as intra-cellular chaperone and causing the bacteria to form into clumps (much like an egg that has been boiled) that will eventually die off. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Oxidation of the resulting ring yields the final pyrrole ring C. Finally, these two pieces are stitched together in a dehydration reaction driven forward by the establishment of a conjugated system across all three rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The useful products of methanogenesis are absorbed by the gut, but methane is released from the animal mainly by belching (eructation). (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternative pathway, mainly in peripheral tissues, is by diamine oxidase-catalyzed oxidation into agmatine-aldehyde, which is in turn converted by aldehyde dehydrogenase into guanidinobutyrate and secreted by the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • To accomplish this, synthetic genes for human insulin are fused with the β-galactosidase gene of E.coli, where they undergo transcription and ultimately translation into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limiting factor for the use of microorganisms like E. coli in biosynthesis of gene products like insulin is time, yet due to advancements in the synthesis of oligonucleotides and liquid chromatography, the production time needed for DNA fragments has greatly decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for albumin is located on chromosome 4 and mutations in this gene can result in anomalous proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • AOPPs activated the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner, activated IKK β and NF- κ B p65, and promoted I κ B α degradation. (hindawi.com)
  • Pretreatment with SLs inhibited MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression and suppressed IKK β and NF- κ B p65 phosphorylation and I κ B α degradation. (hindawi.com)
  • The popularity of performic acid as a sterilizer originates from the safe nature of its degradation products, mostly carbon dioxide, oxygen and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • As a major organ for excretion, the kidney removes waste materials and chemicals from the body, such as increased concentrations of intermediary metabolites of a particular pathway, making urine (the waste product from the kidney) particularly useful for medical diagnostics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glyoxylate resulting from this pathway is normally stored away to prevent oxidation to oxalate in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • with HS coenzyme B releases a proton and re-reduces Ni(II) by one-electron, regenerating Ni(I). Some organisms can oxidize methane, functionally reversing the process of methanogenesis, also referred to as the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both low-molecular weight compounds and proteins such as FNRs, cytochrome c3, and cytochrome c6 can act as physiological electron donors or acceptors for hydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The [NiFe] hydrogenases, when isolated, are found to catalyse both H2 evolution and uptake, with low-potential multihaem cytochromes such as cytochrome c3 acting as either electron donors or acceptors, depending on their oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin, which has an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • cirrhosis of the liver is most common Excess excretion by the kidneys (as in nephrotic syndrome) Excess loss in bowel (protein-losing enteropathy, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression were tested using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, and the protein levels of IKK β , phospho-IKK β , I κ B α , NF- κ B p65, phospho-NF- κ B p65, and tubulin were analyzed by Western blotting. (hindawi.com)
  • organisms
  • These organisms may accomplish reverse methanogenesis using a nickel-containing protein similar to methyl-coenzyme M reductase used by methanogenic archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Chronic hyperglycemia resulting from diabetes brings about a rise in oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of glucose-autoxidation and protein glycosylation. (hindawi.com)
  • Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose into D-glucono-1,5-lactone, which then hydrolyzes to gluconic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Large AGE proteins unable to enter the Bowman's capsule are capable of binding to receptors on endothelial and mesangial cells and to the mesangial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • free
  • Larger, extracellularly derived AGE proteins cannot pass through the basement membrane of the renal corpuscle and must first be degraded into AGE peptides and AGE free adducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • position
  • This intermediate is then modified by methylation (which incorporates a methyl group from L-methionine onto the alcohol at the 6 position) and oxidation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde to yield the core A-B ring structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Furthermore, the platform has also been shown to be reliable in detecting other types of IEMs, such as sugar metabolism disorders and fatty acid oxidation disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger
  • Much like PPOs, aureusidin synthase is likely first synthesized as a larger ~60 kDa protein and then undergoes proteolytic cleavage to remove transport groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Some researchers believe that pockets of solvent trapped between the two bilayer leaflets can disrupt normal protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • This protein contains only a mononuclear Fe active site and no iron-sulfur clusters, in contrast to the [FeFe] hydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)