• chemotherapy
  • adjuvant mixed with an antigen acts as a tissue depot, slowly releasing antigen and activating the immune system Oncology The addition of chemotherapy to a traditional therapeutic modality to ↓ M&M Pharmacology A substance which, when added to a medication, enhances its pharmacologic effect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The clinical relevance of PCCI is significant, considering the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors in the population, many of whom may have been treated with aggressive dosing of chemotherapeutic agents, or with chemotherapy as an adjuvant to other forms of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ravdin asked Fisher to join 22 other surgeons in attending an NIH meeting to discuss the establishment of the Surgical Adjuvant Chemotherapy Breast Project, later known as the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This study of more than 800 women, which was the first project to emerge from the NIH meeting, concluded that while chemotherapy involving the drug thiotepa positively affected the survival rates of premenopausal women, physicians were hesitant to begin using systemic adjuvant therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical procedure
  • The goal of anesthesia is to achieve the endpoints required for the given surgical procedure with the least risk to the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling. (wikipedia.org)
  • reflexes
  • analgesia (lack of sensation which also blunts autonomic reflexes) muscle relaxation Different types of anesthesia (which are discussed in the following sections) affect the endpoints differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • In the event of positive margins or locally advanced disease found on pathology, adjuvant radiation therapy may offer improved survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the decision to do the mastectomy is based on various factors, including breast size, the number of lesions, biologic aggressiveness of a breast cancer, the availability of adjuvant radiation, and the willingness of the patient to accept higher rates of tumor recurrences after lumpectomy and radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Many adjuvants also contain or act directly as: surfactants which promote concentration of protein antigens molecules over a large surface area, and immunostimulatory molecules or properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjuvants are generally used with soluble protein antigens to increase antibody titers and induce a prolonged response with accompanying memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune responses to non-protein antigens are generally poorly or enhanced by adjuvants and there is no system memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agents
  • The use of tourniquets and injected agents to induce localized anesthesia was first introduced by August Bier in 1908. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its low potency, it cannot produce anesthesia on its own but is frequently combined with other agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, newer volatile agents (e.g., sevoflurane, desflurane) have been popular not due to their potency (minimum alveolar concentration), but due to their versatility for a faster emergence from anesthesia, thanks to their lower blood-gas partition coefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institutional guidelines governing animal use and procedures relating to these methodologies are generally oriented around humane considerations and appropriate conduct for adjuvant (agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves) use. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedures
  • Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triazolam is also sometimes used as an adjuvant in medical procedures requiring anesthesia or to reduce anxiety during brief events like MRI scans and non-surgical dental procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve the goals of anesthesia, drugs act on different but interconnected parts of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrous oxide is a common adjuvant gas, making it one of the most long-lived drugs still in current use. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs are often combined with adjuvants (additives) with the end goal of increasing the duration of the analgesia or shortening time of onset. (wikipedia.org)