• lactic
  • Lactic Acid Metabolism in HIV-Infected Persons. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hyperammonemia probably refractory to N-carbamylglutamate: other urea cycle disorders (UCD), lysinuric protein intolerance, mitochondrial disorders, congenital lactic acidemia, fatty acid oxidation defects or primary liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Properties Site of action: colon Onset of Action: 12-72 hours (oral) 0.25 - 1 hour (rectal) Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax) Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base balance on the inter-conversion of simvastatin and pravastatin between lactone and hydroxy acid forms have been investigated in physiological buffers, human plasma and cell culture medium over pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.8. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • At physiological and alkaline pH, substantial proportions of simvastatin lactone (~ 87% and 99%, respectively) and pravastatin lactone (~ 98% and 99%, respectively) were converted to the active hydroxy acid forms after 24 hours of incubation at 37 °C. At acidic pH, conversion occurs to a lower extent, resulting in greater proportion of statin remaining in the more lipophilic lactone form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • If the acids remained in the body, they would accumulate in areas of low blood flow (like joints), thereby obstructing normal physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • We found that plasma levels of the amino acids glutamine/glutamate are reduced in patients with propionic acidemia and decrease, rather than increase (like in urea cycle defects or other types of hyperammonemia) with hyperammonemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Enteral feeding with a protein hydrolysate or amino acid based formulas worsen the diarrhoea and the children rapidly fail to thrive and develop protein energy malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidemia
  • The objective of this project is to define whether nutritional supplements (ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamine, or citrate) capable of filling-up the citric acid cycle (anaplerotic therapy) can improve hyperammonemia, glutamine levels, and outcome in patients with propionic acidemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propionic acidemia is caused by deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase that impairs the supply of succinyl CoA to the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since alpha-ketoglutarate is the main source of endogenous glutamate/glutamine synthesis, our hypothesis is that chronic hyperammonemia and progressive dysfunction of multiple organs in patients with propionic acidemia is due to a functional insufficiency of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle with defective production of alpha-ketoglutarate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • excess acid
  • Anion Gap is a surrogate measure for the level of ketones resulting in the excess acid production. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • By Le Chȃtelier's Principle, the release of CO2 from the lungs pushes the reaction above to the left, causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess acid is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • H C O 3 − + H + ↔ H 2 C O 3 ↔ C O 2 + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\rm {HCO_{3}^{-}+H^{+}\leftrightarrow H_{2}CO_{3}\leftrightarrow CO_{2}+H_{2}O}}} Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous buffer solutions will react with strong acids or strong bases by absorbing excess hydrogen H+ ions, or hydroxide OH− ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • weak acid
  • Buffers typically consist of a pair of compounds in solution, one of which is a weak acid and the other a weak base. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher the concentration of the weak acid in the solution (compared to the weak base) the lower the resulting pH of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • They relied on the work of Ernst Leopold Salkowski, who published results in the 1870s that suggested inorganic acids could only be excreted by the kidneys if neutralized by inorganic bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Blood test to assess liver and thyroid function, blood counts and blood chemistries, methylmalonic acid levels, and for genetic tests and basic research studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • results
  • Results indicate that the conversion of the lactone forms of simvastatin and pravastatin to the corresponding hydroxy acid is strongly pH-dependent. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, our results suggest that co-morbidities associated with acid-base imbalance can play a substantial role in the development and potentiation of statin-induced myotoxicity. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • compounds
  • citation needed] The triamterene ring system is found in many naturally occurring compounds, such as folic acid and riboflavin. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Enhanced cytotoxicity of statins was observed under acidic conditions and is attributed to increased cellular uptake of the more lipophilic lactone or unionized hydroxy acid form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • cause
  • As such, surface energies can be subdivided according to the various interactions that cause them, such as the surface energy due to dispersive (van der Waals) forces, hydrogen bonding, polar interactions, acid/base interactions, etc. (wikipedia.org)