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  • lactic
  • Lactic Acid Metabolism in HIV-Infected Persons. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hyperammonemia probably refractory to N-carbamylglutamate: other urea cycle disorders (UCD), lysinuric protein intolerance, mitochondrial disorders, congenital lactic acidemia, fatty acid oxidation defects or primary liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Properties Site of action: colon Onset of Action: 12-72 hours (oral) 0.25 - 1 hour (rectal) Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax) Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bicarbonate
  • The main variants are the base excess approach and the bicarbonate approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human stomach and duodenum, the bicarbonate buffer system serves to both neutralize gastric acid and stabilize the intracellular pH of epithelial cells via the secretion of bicarbonate ion into the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the pH in the ECF tends to fall (i.e. become more acid) the hydrogen ions are excreted into the urine, while the bicarbonate ions are secreted into the blood plasma, causing the plasma pH to rise (correcting the initial fall). (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base balance on the inter-conversion of simvastatin and pravastatin between lactone and hydroxy acid forms have been investigated in physiological buffers, human plasma and cell culture medium over pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.8. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • At physiological and alkaline pH, substantial proportions of simvastatin lactone (~ 87% and 99%, respectively) and pravastatin lactone (~ 98% and 99%, respectively) were converted to the active hydroxy acid forms after 24 hours of incubation at 37 °C. At acidic pH, conversion occurs to a lower extent, resulting in greater proportion of statin remaining in the more lipophilic lactone form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • If the acids remained in the body, they would accumulate in areas of low blood flow (like joints), thereby obstructing normal physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugate base
  • This is because they operate by making changes to the buffers, each of which consists of two components: a weak acid and its conjugate base. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the ratio concentrations of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, by manipulating firstly the concentration of the weak acid, and secondly that of its conjugate base, the pH of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can be adjusted very accurately to the correct value. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aqueous solution, the equilibrium of acid dissociation can be written symbolically as: H A + H 2 O ⇌ A − + H 3 O + {\displaystyle \mathrm {HA+H_{2}O\rightleftharpoons A^{-}+H_{3}O^{+}} } where HA is a generic acid that dissociates into A−, known as the conjugate base of the acid and a hydrogen ion which combines with a water molecule to make a hydronium ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the example shown in the figure, HA represents acetic acid, and A− represents the acetate ion, the conjugate base. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidemia
  • The objective of this project is to define whether nutritional supplements (ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamine, or citrate) capable of filling-up the citric acid cycle (anaplerotic therapy) can improve hyperammonemia, glutamine levels, and outcome in patients with propionic acidemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propionic acidemia is caused by deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase that impairs the supply of succinyl CoA to the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We found that plasma levels of the amino acids glutamine/glutamate are reduced in patients with propionic acidemia and decrease, rather than increase (like in urea cycle defects or other types of hyperammonemia) with hyperammonemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since alpha-ketoglutarate is the main source of endogenous glutamate/glutamine synthesis, our hypothesis is that chronic hyperammonemia and progressive dysfunction of multiple organs in patients with propionic acidemia is due to a functional insufficiency of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle with defective production of alpha-ketoglutarate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The current therapy of propionic acidemia is based on restriction of precursors of propionic acid (methionine, valine, isoleucine, threonine, odd chain fatty acids, cholesterol) and administration of carnitine to help remove toxic organic acids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • concentration
  • The higher the concentration of the weak acid in the solution (compared to the weak base) the lower the resulting pH of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • the dissociation of a strong acid is effectively complete such that concentration of the undissociated acid is too small to be measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • conversely, it is possible to calculate the equilibrium concentration of the acids and bases in solution when the pH is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • weak acid
  • Buffers typically consist of a pair of compounds in solution, one of which is a weak acid and the other a weak base. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pH of a buffer solution depends solely on the ratio of the molar concentrations of the weak acid to the weak base. (wikipedia.org)
  • A weak acid has a pKa value in the approximate range −2 to 12 in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • dissociation constant
  • An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other structural factors that influence the magnitude of the acid dissociation constant include inductive effects, mesomeric effects, and hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidity
  • An acid-base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acid dissociation constants are also essential in aquatic chemistry and chemical oceanography, where the acidity of water plays a fundamental role. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Enhanced cytotoxicity of statins was observed under acidic conditions and is attributed to increased cellular uptake of the more lipophilic lactone or unionized hydroxy acid form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • So that means that as CO2 increases, H+ will increase, which means that there will be more acid in the body…which means that pH will decrease to become more acidic. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • buffer
  • H C O 3 − + H + ↔ H 2 C O 3 ↔ C O 2 + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\rm {HCO_{3}^{-}+H^{+}\leftrightarrow H_{2}CO_{3}\leftrightarrow CO_{2}+H_{2}O}}} Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry, a knowledge of pKa values is necessary for the preparation of buffer solutions and is also a prerequisite for a quantitative understanding of the interaction between acids or bases and metal ions to form complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • citation needed] The triamterene ring system is found in many naturally occurring compounds, such as folic acid and riboflavin. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, many compounds used for medication are weak acids or bases, and a knowledge of the pKa values, together with the water-octanol partition coefficient, can be used for estimating the extent to which the compound enters the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • They relied on the work of Ernst Leopold Salkowski, who published results in the 1870s that suggested inorganic acids could only be excreted by the kidneys if neutralized by inorganic bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Blood test to assess liver and thyroid function, blood counts and blood chemistries, methylmalonic acid levels, and for genetic tests and basic research studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • lactic
  • Lactic Acid Metabolism in HIV-Infected Persons. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hyperammonemia probably refractory to N-carbamylglutamate: other urea cycle disorders (UCD), lysinuric protein intolerance, mitochondrial disorders, congenital lactic acidemia, fatty acid oxidation defects or primary liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Properties Site of action: colon Onset of Action: 12-72 hours (oral) 0.25 - 1 hour (rectal) Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax) Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bicarbonate
  • The main variants are the base excess approach and the bicarbonate approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human stomach and duodenum, the bicarbonate buffer system serves to both neutralize gastric acid and stabilize the intracellular pH of epithelial cells via the secretion of bicarbonate ion into the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the pH in the ECF tends to fall (i.e. become more acid) the hydrogen ions are excreted into the urine, while the bicarbonate ions are secreted into the blood plasma, causing the plasma pH to rise (correcting the initial fall). (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base balance on the inter-conversion of simvastatin and pravastatin between lactone and hydroxy acid forms have been investigated in physiological buffers, human plasma and cell culture medium over pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.8. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • At physiological and alkaline pH, substantial proportions of simvastatin lactone (~ 87% and 99%, respectively) and pravastatin lactone (~ 98% and 99%, respectively) were converted to the active hydroxy acid forms after 24 hours of incubation at 37 °C. At acidic pH, conversion occurs to a lower extent, resulting in greater proportion of statin remaining in the more lipophilic lactone form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • If the acids remained in the body, they would accumulate in areas of low blood flow (like joints), thereby obstructing normal physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugate base
  • This is because they operate by making changes to the buffers, each of which consists of two components: a weak acid and its conjugate base. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the ratio concentrations of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, by manipulating firstly the concentration of the weak acid, and secondly that of its conjugate base, the pH of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can be adjusted very accurately to the correct value. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aqueous solution, the equilibrium of acid dissociation can be written symbolically as: H A + H 2 O ⇌ A − + H 3 O + {\displaystyle \mathrm {HA+H_{2}O\rightleftharpoons A^{-}+H_{3}O^{+}} } where HA is a generic acid that dissociates into A−, known as the conjugate base of the acid and a hydrogen ion which combines with a water molecule to make a hydronium ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the example shown in the figure, HA represents acetic acid, and A− represents the acetate ion, the conjugate base. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidemia
  • The objective of this project is to define whether nutritional supplements (ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamine, or citrate) capable of filling-up the citric acid cycle (anaplerotic therapy) can improve hyperammonemia, glutamine levels, and outcome in patients with propionic acidemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propionic acidemia is caused by deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase that impairs the supply of succinyl CoA to the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We found that plasma levels of the amino acids glutamine/glutamate are reduced in patients with propionic acidemia and decrease, rather than increase (like in urea cycle defects or other types of hyperammonemia) with hyperammonemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since alpha-ketoglutarate is the main source of endogenous glutamate/glutamine synthesis, our hypothesis is that chronic hyperammonemia and progressive dysfunction of multiple organs in patients with propionic acidemia is due to a functional insufficiency of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle with defective production of alpha-ketoglutarate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The current therapy of propionic acidemia is based on restriction of precursors of propionic acid (methionine, valine, isoleucine, threonine, odd chain fatty acids, cholesterol) and administration of carnitine to help remove toxic organic acids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • concentration
  • The higher the concentration of the weak acid in the solution (compared to the weak base) the lower the resulting pH of the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • the dissociation of a strong acid is effectively complete such that concentration of the undissociated acid is too small to be measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • conversely, it is possible to calculate the equilibrium concentration of the acids and bases in solution when the pH is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • weak acid
  • Buffers typically consist of a pair of compounds in solution, one of which is a weak acid and the other a weak base. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pH of a buffer solution depends solely on the ratio of the molar concentrations of the weak acid to the weak base. (wikipedia.org)
  • A weak acid has a pKa value in the approximate range −2 to 12 in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • dissociation constant
  • An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other structural factors that influence the magnitude of the acid dissociation constant include inductive effects, mesomeric effects, and hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidity
  • An acid-base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acid dissociation constants are also essential in aquatic chemistry and chemical oceanography, where the acidity of water plays a fundamental role. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Enhanced cytotoxicity of statins was observed under acidic conditions and is attributed to increased cellular uptake of the more lipophilic lactone or unionized hydroxy acid form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • So that means that as CO2 increases, H+ will increase, which means that there will be more acid in the body…which means that pH will decrease to become more acidic. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • buffer
  • H C O 3 − + H + ↔ H 2 C O 3 ↔ C O 2 + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\rm {HCO_{3}^{-}+H^{+}\leftrightarrow H_{2}CO_{3}\leftrightarrow CO_{2}+H_{2}O}}} Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry, a knowledge of pKa values is necessary for the preparation of buffer solutions and is also a prerequisite for a quantitative understanding of the interaction between acids or bases and metal ions to form complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • citation needed] The triamterene ring system is found in many naturally occurring compounds, such as folic acid and riboflavin. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, many compounds used for medication are weak acids or bases, and a knowledge of the pKa values, together with the water-octanol partition coefficient, can be used for estimating the extent to which the compound enters the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • They relied on the work of Ernst Leopold Salkowski, who published results in the 1870s that suggested inorganic acids could only be excreted by the kidneys if neutralized by inorganic bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Blood test to assess liver and thyroid function, blood counts and blood chemistries, methylmalonic acid levels, and for genetic tests and basic research studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)