• citric acid
  • δ ¯ = ∑ x i δ i ∑ x i {\displaystyle {\bar {\delta }}={\frac {\sum x_{i}\delta _{i}}{\sum x_{i}}}} Example: the pKa of the hydroxyl group in citric acid has been determined from 13C chemical shift data to be 14.4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The example of citric acid is shown at the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • is a weak acid, some of it will remain in the acidic form. (coursera.org)
  • The amino acid sequence comprises one sequence of 39 amino acidic residues followed by 11 sequences of 40 residues, each of it contains one SRTX sequence preceded by 19 spacer amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic 3-D macroporous hydrogels shows the excellent ability to adsorb heavy-metal ions in a wide range of pH from extremely diluted aqueous solutions, which can be later used as an adsorbent for purification of salty water All proteins are polyampholytes, as some amino acids tend to be acidic, while others are basic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the most acidic species that can exist in water (assuming sufficient water for dissolution): any stronger acid will ionize and protonate a water molecule to form hydronium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike hydronium in neutral solutions that result from water's autodissociation, hydronium ions in acidic solutions are long-lasting and concentrated, in proportion to the strength of the dissolved acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • dissociate
  • We have to figure out what fraction for acid dissociate into the ions. (coursera.org)
  • The molecules in pure water auto-dissociate (i.e.: react with each other) into hydronium and hydroxide ions in the following equilibrium: 2 H 2O ⇌ OH− + H 3O+ In pure water, there is an equal number of hydroxide and hydronium ions, so it is a neutral solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis
  • Finally, the concept of Lewis acids and bases is discussed and demonstrated through examples. (coursera.org)
  • An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • The second category of acids are Lewis acids, which form a covalent bond with an electron pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H+) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In modern terminology, an acid is implicitly a Brønsted acid and not a Lewis acid, since chemists almost always refer to a Lewis acid explicitly as a Lewis acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, although alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, they can also function as Lewis bases due to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • So, which acid/base reaction you use depends on the exact identity of the acid you're examining. (physicsforums.com)
  • When the system is in equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. (physicsforums.com)
  • That is, the equation is not represented as a reversible equilibrium reaction. (dlrgenchem.com)
  • Because the reaction is reversible, only a fraction of the acid will be ionized at any one point in time. (dlrgenchem.com)
  • We recognize equilibrium in a chemical reaction system, oddly enough, by noticing nothing we see no change in any property of the system. (docplayer.net)
  • Chemical reaction equilibrium is always a dynamic balance between two opposing changes, which are balanced because they are occurring at equal rates, within a closed system. (docplayer.net)
  • By Le Chȃtelier's Principle, the release of CO2 from the lungs pushes the reaction above to the left, causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess acid is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later he worked on acid-base equilibria of organic nitrogen compounds, as well as reaction kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric acid
  • In the human stomach and duodenum, the bicarbonate buffer system serves to both neutralize gastric acid and stabilize the intracellular pH of epithelial cells via the secretion of bicarbonate ion into the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • An example is boron trifluoride (BF3), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital which can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3). (wikipedia.org)
  • pairs
  • Includes the meaning of the term conjugate as applied to acid-base pairs. (chemguide.co.uk)
  • SRTXs complete cDNA sequence comprises 1948 base pairs (bp) coding for a pre-pro-polypeptide of 543 amino acids which starts with a methionine that initiates translation followed by a hydrophobic peptide characteristic of a signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Because the base of the pyramid is made up of three identical hydrogen atoms, the H 3O+ molecule's symmetric top configuration is such that it belongs to the C3v point group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bjerrum recognised that the formation of a metal complex with a ligand was a kind of acid-base equilibrium: there is competition for the ligand, L, between the metal ion, Mn+, and the hydrogen ion, H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ion (HCO− 3), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to maintain pH in the blood and duodenum, among other tissues, to support proper metabolic function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winters' formula, named for Dr. R.W. Winters, is a formula used to evaluate respiratory compensation when analyzing acid-base disorders and a metabolic acidosis is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors including simvastatin, simvastatin acid, lovastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin inhibit the metabolism of mexazolam, but not the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • The equilibrium constant value can be determined if any one of these concentrations can be measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculation of the species concentrations for a polyprotic acid is more complicated unless the pK values are separated by four or more, because three or more species may co-exist at a given pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of computer programs for the calculation of equilibrium species concentrations have been published. (wikipedia.org)
  • For details concerning general purpose programs see computer programs for calculating species concentrations in chemical equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)