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  • muscles
  • Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, fasciculations, and partial paralysis of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal component of the accessory nerve provides motor control of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraction of the stenocleidomastoid fibres turns the head to the opposite side, the net effect meaning that the head is turned to the side of the brain receiving visual information from that area.The cranial component of the accessory nerve, on the other hand, provides motor control to the muscles of the soft palate, larynx and pharynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. (icdlist.com)
  • Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. (icdlist.com)
  • Facial nerve paralysis is a relatively common condition with a yearly incidence of 0.25% leading to function loss of the mimic muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual factors can be patient age, type of paralysis (partial or complete, uni- or bilateral), denervation time of the mimetic muscles, availability of nerve grafts and medical condition of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • If facial paralysis is caused by trauma or tumour surgery, direct reinnervation of the facial muscles (ideally within 72 hours after facial nerve damage) can be achieved by neurorrhaphy, with or without an interposition nerve graft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fazio-Londe disease (FLD), also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood, is a very rare inherited motor neuron disease of children and young adults and is characterized by progressive paralysis of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progression to involve other cranial nerve muscles occurs over a period of months or years. (wikipedia.org)
  • innervation
  • suggested the use of the masseteric nerve as possible donor nerve for innervation of the transplanted muscle in patients with Moebius syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrent
  • Some few filaments from it are continued into the trunk of the vagus below the ganglion, to be distributed with the recurrent nerve and probably also with the cardiac nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Located within this compartment are the perithyroidal lymph nodes, paratracheal lymph nodes, lymph nodes along the recurrent laryngeal nerves, and precricoid lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • The practice of using sensory grafts to repair motor nerve defects is challenged by the discovery of preferential motor reinnervation and modality specific nerve regeneration. (ovid.com)
  • He had normal motor and sensory function of the ankle and foot, a negative Tinel test and his symptoms were not reproducible during examination, although the reported paraesthesia was in the typical distribution of the medial and lateral plantar nerves. (scielo.org.za)
  • lymph
  • The incidence of such nerve injuries during lymph node biopsies is 3%-10%, but the diagnosis is often delayed. (lu.se)
  • facial nerve
  • Smile surgery or smile reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores the smile for people with facial nerve paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamic smile reconstruction procedures restore the facial nerve activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971 a new technique for facial nerve reconstruction was introduced, as Scaramella and Smith reported on the technique of cross facial nerve grafting (CFNG) for reconstruction of a coordinated smile in unilateral facial paralysis cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight years later, Terzis introduced the "babysitter" procedure, which consists of a combination of CFNGs and a simultaneous partial hypoglossal to facial nerve transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, the facial nerve cannot be preserved during resection of these tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algorithm 1) Neurorrhaphy is a primary end-to-end reconnection of the facial nerve stumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, tension-free reconnection is needed, otherwise scar formation can occur and axons will regenerate outside the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algorithm 1) Secondary facial paralysis with a denervation time of less than 6 months can be treated with one or more cross facial nerve grafts (CFNGs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tibial
  • The accessory soleus muscle is a rare anatomic variant which may present as a mass in the posteromedial aspect of the ankle, causing compression of the tibial nerve or an exertional compartment syndrome. (scielo.org.za)
  • The tibial nerve was flattened and showed intra-neural oedema. (scielo.org.za)
  • grafts
  • These cases provide a stimulus to consider the use of motor nerve grafts or transfers in the repair of motor nerve deficits. (ovid.com)
  • If a tension-free reconnection is not possible, interposition nerve grafts are an option. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • We present a case report of a patient with a unilateral accessory soleus associated with neurological symptoms of his foot. (scielo.org.za)
  • Moebius syndrome is a congenital neurological disorder with bilateral paralysis of both the facial and abducens nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Jubilee edition of the classic text first published in 1963 Anaesthetists require a particularly specialized knowledge of anatomy The anaesthetist must know intimately the respiratory passages, the major veins and the peripheral nerves to deliver safe and effective pain control. (kobo.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of these spinal roots, nerves, and ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal to this peripheral region is the grey matter, which contains the nerve cell bodies arranged in the three grey columns that give the region its butterfly-shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also made contributions involving research of peripheral nerve fiber terminations in vertebrates (e.g. torpedo fish). (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory system of the brain, which is separated from the epithelium by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary components of the layers of epithelial tissue are the mucous membranes, olfactory glands, olfactory neurons, and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory neurons have cilia (tiny hairs) containing proteins that bind to odor molecules, causing an electrical response that spreads through the receptor cells to the olfactory nerve fibers at the back of the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory nerve fibers, which originate in the epithelium, pass through the cribriform plate, connecting the epithelium to the brain's limbic system at the olfactory bulbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lumbar plexus is formed from the anterior rami of nerves L1 to L4 and some fibers from T12. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes the heart rate to increase, both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which have a similar effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagus
  • Lies between the inferior edge of the petrous temporal bone and the adjacent occipital bone and transmits the internal jugular vein (actually begins here), the glossopharyngeal (IX), the vagus (X) and the accessory (XI) nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preganglionic motor fibres (ganglionic branches) from the dorsal vagal nucleus and the special visceral efferents from the nucleus ambiguus, which descend to the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve, form a band skirting the ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • IV (1882), pp. 821-830, e 2 tavole di 24figure - Observations involving motor nerve terminations in the striated muscle of torpedo fish, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a critical component of nerve cell membranes where electrical impulses carry thoughts, feelings, and instruction to run the body and mind. (sport-easy.com.ua)