• neurotransmitters
  • The signalling within the chemoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the release of neurotransmitters by the glomus cells, including dopamine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and enkephalins. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. (slicksurface.com)
  • Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are oval-shaped mechanoreceptors essential for light touch sensation and found in the skin of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are specialized airway epithelial cells that occur as solitary cells or as clusters called neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • these substances exert direct mitogenic effects on epithelial cells and exhibit many properties akin to growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two morphologic types have been described: the open type, extending slender apical processes to the ductal or acinar lumen, and the closed type cells, which lack lumenal protrusions but display dendrite-like processes that extend between adjacent epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • arises
  • Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous
  • Eight major taxa of lung carcinomas are recognized within the WHO-2004 classification: Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland-like carcinoma The subclassification of GCCL among these major taxa has undergone significant changes in recent decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • often restricted to the cells of the alveolar epithelium (squamous alveolar cells and great alveolar cells) and alveolar phagocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When it is found with one or more differentiated forms of lung cancer, such as squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, the malignant tumor is then diagnosed and classified as a combined small cell lung carcinoma (c-SCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrin-releasi
  • Immunohistochemically, prostatic small cell carcinoma are positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or rarely and weakly expressing, androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Small-cell lung carcinoma can occur in combination with a wide variety of other histological variants of lung cancer, including extremely complex malignant tissue admixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asexual spores (conidia) occur in pycnidia from conidiogenous cells, without conidiophores. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When associated with the lung, it is sometimes called "oat cell carcinoma" due to the flat cell shape and scanty cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the name implies, the cells in small-cell carcinomas are smaller than normal cells, and barely have room for any cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • Any of the cells that surround the axons of the peripheral nerves, forming the myelin sheath of myelinated nerve fibers and providing support for nonmyelinated nerve fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • basket cell a neuron of the cerebral cortex whose fibers form a basket-like nest in which a Purkinje cell rests. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nerve fibers pick up the signals sent by glomus cells and transmit them to the central nervous system for treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • stratum
  • In mammalian skin, they are clear cells found in the stratum basale (at the bottom of sweat duct ridges) of the epidermis approximately 10 µm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinoid
  • In some endometrial neoplasms they are present in abundance, but tumours rich in such cells do not have any features suggestive of a carcinoid tumour and are morphologically identical to adenocarcinomas of similar grade which are devoid of argyrophil cells. (bmj.com)
  • secretory
  • Scanty argyrophil cells are present in a substantial proportion of normal endometria, particularly during the secretory stage of the cycle. (bmj.com)
  • tumor
  • However, in a more recent series of 4,212 consecutive lung cancer cases, only one (0.024%) lesion was determined to be a "pure" giant-cell carcinoma after complete sectioning of all available tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, adjacent non-neuroendocrine tumor cells appear to display an increased expression of Ki-67. (wikipedia.org)
  • As opposed to their normal neuroendocrine counterparts, tumor neuroendocrine cells express the beta-oxidative enzyme alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, which is a recently described marker for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ileum
  • L cells are primarily found in the ileum and large intestine (colon), but some are also found in the duodenum and jejunum. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior pituitary
  • This area controls most anterior pituitary cells and thereby regulates functions in the entire body, like responses to stress, cold, sleep, and the reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this site, these cells can release substances into small blood vessels that travel directly to the anterior pituitary gland (the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Giant-cell carcinomas have been reported to be diagnosed in a significantly younger population than all non-small-cell carcinomas considered as a group. (wikipedia.org)
  • An embryonic stem cell derives from a group of cells, the inner cell mass, from a 4-5 day old embryo, called a BLASTOCYST . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This group of cells can be removed and cultured into embryonic stem cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. (slicksurface.com)
  • stem cells
  • Stem cells are present in embryos and in various tissues of adult organisms and are widely used in scientific research. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells and germ cells have the potential to differentiate into almost any or all of the cell types of the body i.e. they are 'pluripotent', but they do not have identical properties. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ability of stem cells to proliferate and to differentiate into specialized cell types makes them potentially useful for the repair and replacement of damaged and diseased tissues, see THERAPEUTIC CLONING . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • origin
  • any of the cells of ectodermal origin that make up the neurilemma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An adult stem cell is an undifferentiated cell occurring in differentiated tissue, such as that of BONE MARROW , BRAIN , SKELETAL MUSCLE , LIVER , SKIN , PANCREAS or the BLOOD , with the capacity to yield specialized cell types of the tissue of origin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The origin of Merkel cells has been debated for over 20 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The open type cells may in addition receive regulatory signals from luminal molecules The developmental origin of these cells is as yet unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endometrial
  • Argyrophil cells are also present in the various types of hyperplastic endometria and are found in more than half of endometrial adenocarcinomas. (bmj.com)
  • Endometrial adenocarcinomas containing argyrophil cells tend to be well differentiated and tend not to invade deeply into the myometrium. (bmj.com)
  • Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear to be associated with chorionic tissue in an intrauterine or extrauterine site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carcinomas
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment is similar to small cell lung cancer, but survival rates are much higher than other small-cell carcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • They are carried by portal vessels to the pituitary cells where they may stimulate, inhibit, or maintain the function of a particular cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytes
  • Astrocytes (from 'star' cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with 'end feet' which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. (slicksurface.com)
  • characteristic
  • The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anichkov's cell a plump modified histiocyte in the inflammatory lesions of the heart (Aschoff bodies) characteristic of rheumatic fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • type
  • a type of cell occurring in the region of the nerve fibres of the peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Embedded in the cell membrane are a wide range of molecules that vary with the cell type and are typically composed of proteins or glycoproteins that have a cytoplasmic transmembrane and external domains. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is an extremely rare type of small cell, and there has been little information in the scientific community. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glomus cell (type I) is a peripheral chemoreceptor, mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies, that helps the body regulate breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Small-cell carcinoma is most often more rapidly and widely metastatic than non-small cell lung carcinoma (and hence staged differently). (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • It has been argued that bacterial and viral infections during early life direct the maturing immune system toward TH1, which counterbalance proallergic responses of TH2 cells. (springer.com)
  • nucleus
  • Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which contains the genetic material, composed of the chromosomes , each of which is a long linear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule associated with protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells, the bacteria, have no nucleus, and their genetic material, consisting of a single circular naked DNA molecule, is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • band cell a late metamyelocyte in which the nucleus is in the form of a curved or coiled band. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lung cancer
  • It is estimated to account for 1,000 new cases a year in the U.S. Histologically similar to small-cell lung cancer, therapies for small-cell lung cancer are usually used to treat EPSCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • possess
  • The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION. (slicksurface.com)
  • clusters
  • Clusters of glomus cells, of which the carotid bodies and aortic bodies are the most important, are called non-chromaffin or parasympathetic paraganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autonomic
  • The adrenal medullary cells are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autonomic ganglia innervate the glomus cells, and some presynaptic sympathetic ganglia synapse with glomus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer. (slicksurface.com)