A molecular analysis of the yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome: SOX10 dysfunction causes different neurocristopathies.
The Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome was first observed in a Yemenite sister and brother showing cutaneous hypopigmented and hyperpigmented spots and patches, microcornea, coloboma and severe hearing loss. A second case, observed in a girl with similar skin symptoms and hearing loss but without microcornea or coloboma, was reported as a mild form of this syndrome. Here we show that a SOX10 missense mutation is responsible for the mild form, resulting in a loss of DNA binding of this transcription factor. In contrast, no SOX10 alteration could be found in the other, severe case of the Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome. Based on genetic, clinical, molecular and functional data, we suggest that these two cases represent two different syndromes. Moreover, as mutations of the SOX10 transcription factor were previously described in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease, these results show that SOX10 mutations cause various types of neurocristopathy. (+info)
Diabetes and ischemic heart disease among Yemenite immigrants in Israel.
BACKGROUND: The pattern of diabetes and ischemic heart disease among emigrants from pre-industrialized societies to more developed countries may be explained by both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVES: To describe and interpret the pattern of diabetes and ischemic heart disease among Yemenite immigrants in Israel and their second-generation offspring. METHODS: Medical record charts of adult Yemenites were surveyed in a primary care health center, and the data were compared with prevalence rates derived from a non-Yemenite population. RESULTS: There was a marked excess of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among Yemenite immigrants over 45 years of age, but not of hypertension or ischemic heart disease. Yemenites with diabetes were far less likely to develop ischemic heart disease than non-Yemenites with diabetes (odds ratio for non-Yemenites compared with Yemenites, 3.5; confidence interval 1.54 < OR < 7.77). CONCLUSIONS: There was less of an association between diabetes and ischemic heart disease among Yemenites. This finding requires further investigation of the relative roles of genetic and environmental factors. (+info)
Risk factors for human brucellosis in Yemen: a case control study.
Brucellosis is known to occur in Yemen but its epidemiology has not been extensively studied. The present investigation examined risk factors for human brucellosis in Yemen using a hospital-based case-control study. A total of 235 consecutive patients with brucellosis attending the Central Health Laboratory in Sana'a, Yemen, were matched in respect of age, sex, and place of residence, rural or urban, with 234 controls selected from individuals attending the Central Health Laboratory for unrelated health problems. Clinical information on patients and controls was supplemented with occupational and socio-economic data obtained by interview of cases and controls using a standard questionnaire. After controlling for confounding factors significant risk factors for infection related to occupation as a farmer (OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.4-4.5, P < 0.0001)), shepherd (OR 7.8 (95% CI 1.0-61, P 0.05)) or microbiologist (OR 24.5 (95% CI 2.9-204, P 0.003)); and drinking fresh milk (OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.3-4.3, P 0.001)) and laban (OR 22.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.2 P < 0.0001)). Taking other milk products and offal were not risk factors. Socio-economic and educational factors were also independent risk factors. Occupational, food and socio-economic risk factors significantly confounded one another. Yemen shares some but not all of the risk factors of neighbouring countries. The interrelation between the various factors is complex and studying any one in isolation may give a false impression of its public health significance. Control through education of the population to minimize exposure to, and contact with, animals and their milk and milk products and to boil milk before drinking it or using it to make buttermilk, would be difficult as these would represent such fundamental changes to established patterns of behaviour of this society. Ideally there would be a campaign to control the infection by animal vaccination but the costs and logistic difficulty would be great. Presently there is a clear need for doctors in Yemen to be made aware of the frequency of this infection, the means available for clinical and laboratory diagnosis and effective treatment, while strategies to control the disease in Yemen are formulated and field tested. (+info)
Introduced schistosomiasis. Evaluation as a public health hazard.
Schistosomiasis was found in many agricultural workers from Yemen who are residing in the San Joaquin Valley, and a study was done to evaluate the public health hazard of this imported disease. If the necessary intermediate hosts are present, a local focus of infection could be established. Numerous Biomphalaria obstructa snails collected in the vicinity of the Avenue 82 irrigation canal near Oasis, Riverside County, showed no evidence of natural schistosome infection. Laboratory-reared offspring of these snails were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni originating from Yemen immigrants and to miracidia from a standard laboratory strain of Puerto Rican origin obtained from the National Institutes of Health. All exposures of California B. obstructa were made with a laboratory stock of highly susceptible B. glabrata snails also obtained from NIH as controls. Although miracidia penetrated California snails no evidence of infection was detected whereas the B. glabrata controls showed normal, mature infections with numerous cercariae.There appears little likelihood that B. obstructa can serve as intermediate host for schistosomiasis. (+info)
Distinctive genetic signatures in the Libyan Jews.
Unlinked autosomal microsatellites in six Jewish and two non-Jewish populations were genotyped, and the relationships among these populations were explored. Based on considerations of clustering, pairwise population differentiation, and genetic distance, we found that the Libyan Jewish group retains genetic signatures distinguishable from those of the other populations, in agreement with some historical records on the relative isolation of this community. Our methods also identified evidence of some similarity between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, reflecting possible migration in the Red Sea region. We suggest that high-resolution statistical methods that use individual multilocus genotypes may make it practical to distinguish related populations of extremely recent common ancestry. (+info)
Outbreak of Rift Valley fever--Yemen, August-October 2000.
On September 17, 2000, the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MAI) and Ministry of Health (MOH) of Yemen received reports about the occurrence of disease compatible with Rift Valley fever (RVF) in El Zuhrah district of Hodeidah governorate. Reports of animal disease included abortions and deaths in young animals. Surveillance efforts by MOH and MAI documented widespread disease among humans and animals in the area of Wadi Mawr in El Zuhrah district, which is located on a coastal plain that extends from the southern tip of Yemen into the Jizan area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health has described a simultaneous outbreak of RVF in the Jizan area in KSA (1,2). This report summarizes the investigation of the Yemen outbreak. (+info)
High intestinal lactase concentrations in adult Arbs in Saudi Arabia.
The maximum rise in blood glucose after 50 g lactose by mouth was determined in 40 adult Arabs. Out of 30 Bedouin, urban Saudi, and Yemeni and 9 of mixed ancestry (usually partly African), 25 (83%) and 2 (22%) respectively showed an increase of over 1-1 mmol/1 (20 mg/100 ml). In common with most northern Europeans and Hamitic people of northern Africa, Arabs in Saudi Arabia usually have high intestinal lactase concentrations in adult life. This persistence of high levels probably originated in the Arabian peninsula. Its selective advantage may have been associated with the fluid and calorie content of camels' milk, which is important for survival in desert nomads. (+info)
Folk, traditional and conventional medicine among elderly Yemenite immigrants in Israel.
BACKGROUND: Migration leads to changes in almost all areas of life including health. But how far are health beliefs also preserved, and how far are they affected by the process of acculturation to the host society? OBJECTIVES: To examine the difference between behavior and attitudes towards conventional and traditional medicine among elderly Yemenite immigrants. METHODS: A community-based study was conducted in the Yemenite neighborhoods in the city of Rehovot. All inhabitants of Yemenite origin over the age of 70 were identified from the population register, excluding those who were institutionalized or demented. Social work students interviewed them at home. The questionnaire inquired after health problems in the preceding month. For each of these problems, the respondent was asked whether any mode of treatment had been employed--Yemenite folk remedies, conventional medical care, or other. Their attitudes towards Yemenite folk medicine and conventional medicine were recorded. Socioeconomic data included their current age, age at immigration, year of immigration, marital status, gender, religiosity, and education. RESULTS: A total of 326 elderly people were identified who fulfilled the selection criteria, of whom 304 (93%) agreed to be interviewed. Of these, 276 (91%) reported at least one health problem in the preceding month, providing 515 problems of which 349 (68%) were reported to a conventional medical doctor while 144 (28%) were treated by popular folk remedies. Fifty-nine problems (11.5%) were treated by specifically Yemenite traditional remedies, mostly by the respondents themselves (38/59) rather than by a traditional healer. Immigrants who arrived in Israel over the age of 30 years, as compared to respondents who immigrated at an earlier age and grew up in Israel, were more likely to use traditional Yemenite remedies (24.4% vs. 8.2%, P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Aged Yemenite Jews in Israel prefer modern medicine. The earlier the immigrant arrived in Israel, the more positive the attitude towards modern medicine and the less use made of traditional Yemenite healing. (+info)