d,l-fenfluramine response in impulsive personality disorder assessed with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.
Reduced serotonergic activity has been associated with impulsive aggression in personality disordered patients in metabolite and pharmacologic challenge studies. This study used positron emission tomography to explore whether reduced serotonergic function occurs in critical brain regions such as orbital frontal and cingulate cortex that, may play a role in modulating aggression. Six impulsive-aggressive patients and five healthy volunteers were evaluated for changes in regional glucose metabolism after administration of the serotonergic releasing agent d,l-fenfluramine (60 mg, p.o.) or placebo. Volunteers demonstrated increases in orbital frontal and adjacent ventral medial frontal cortex, cingulate, and inferior parietal cortex, whereas impulsive-aggressive patients showed no significant increases in glucose metabolism after fenfluramine in any region. Compared with volunteers, patients showed significantly blunted metabolic responses in orbital frontal, adjacent ventral medial and cingulate cortex, but not in inferior parietal lobe. These results are consistent with reduced serotonergic modulation of orbital frontal, ventral medial frontal, and cingulate cortex in patients with impulsive-aggressive personality disorders. (+info)
Personality and alcohol/substance-use disorder patient relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings.
This study evaluated the role of personality in the short-term outcome of alcohol/substance-use disorder patients. Detoxifying alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the CAGE Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). These patients were subsequently evaluated over a 1-month period for relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings. High TPQ Persistence scale scores predicted abstinence. When the Thinking and Feeling groups were considered separately, and when these two groups were combined into a single group, high scores for the individual groups and the combined group (i.e. Thinking and Feeling types together) predicted abstinence. High TPQ Persistence scale scores and low Shyness with Strangers and Fear of Uncertainty subscale scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. High MBTI Extroversion and high MBTI Thinking scores also predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. When the Extroverted and Introverted types and the Thinking and Feeling types respectively were combined, as with abstinence, high scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. Age, gender, CAGE, MAST, and BDI scores did not predict outcome. The above information suggests that specific personality variables may predict abstinence and attendance at self-help group meetings in recently detoxified alcoholics, and this may have prognostic and therapeutic significance. (+info)
Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. (+info)
Dependence, locus of control, parental bonding, and personality disorders: a study in alcoholics and controls.
Personality traits, socio-cultural factors, and dysfunctional family systems are considered to be important in the aetiology and clinical development of alcoholism. Particularly, conflict and issues involving psychological (emotional) dependence have long been associated with alcohol addiction. The present work, part of a more extensive study to validate a new rating scale to measure emotional dependence, the Dependence Self-rating Scale (DSRS), assesses dependence, orientation of locus of control, parental bonding perceptions, and personality disorders (PDs) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic samples. The alcoholics showed a prevalence of PDs of 31.3%. The most frequent is the Schizoid PD (40%) followed by the Dependent PD (20%). Subjects with antisocial PD were not included in our selection criteria. The alcoholics scored higher on the DSRS than the controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. By making a comparison between subjects with and without PDs, the DSRS scores were significantly higher in alcoholics with PDs. No significant differences between alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the parental perceptions and locus of control were seen. These findings are sufficiently coherent to encourage further studies on psychological emotional dependence in alcoholics using the DSRS. (+info)
Central nervous system serotonin and personality as variables contributing to excessive alcohol consumption in non-human primates.
Non-human primates will readily consume an alcohol solution for its reinforcing effects when such a solution is palatable, with some subjects consuming alcohol to excess. In this review, we discuss variables that contribute to high alcohol consumption and the behaviours that are correlated with it in a non-human primate model. Developmental and behavioural correlates of central nervous system (CNS) serotonergic activity, as measured by concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were used to investigate neurogenetic influences on alcohol consumption, as well as personality traits that characterize excessive alcohol intake. Inter-individual differences in CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were shown to have trait-like qualities, and with stable inter-individual differences across time and settings. Research has shown numerous similarities between human and non-human primates with respect to Type I- and II-like alcohol abuse and their associated behaviours. In the present series of studies, features characteristic of Type I alcohol misuse, such as high levels of anxiety, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal output, and situational stress predicted high alcohol intake. Primates with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations also exhibited behaviours characteristic of Type II alcohol abuse. Principal among the traits that these subjects exhibited were deficits in impulse control. For example, subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations engaged in spontaneous behaviours that bring reinforcement but placed them at risk, such as entering food baited traps, jumping from dangerous heights to get from one tree to another, and consuming large amounts of alcohol. They can be characterized by other Type II-like deficits, such as impaired social competence, social alienation, and unrestrained, violent aggression. Non-human primates with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations also exhibited high intrinsic tolerance following modest intakes of alcohol, and high rates of aggression during intoxication. High preferences for sweet solutions were shown to predict excessive alcohol consumption. Maternal and paternal genetic influences played major roles in producing low CNS serotonin function and excessive alcohol consumption. These genetic influences on serotonin function were exacerbated by early rearing experiences, particularly parental deprivation. (+info)
Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample.
BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems. (+info)
Psychotherapy of personality disorders.
Although personality disorders are often regarded as "untreatable" by third-party payers, there is actually a growing empirical literature suggesting that Axis II conditions may be eminently treatable by psychotherapy. This literature is critically reviewed, the implications for length of treatment are discussed, and cost-effectiveness issues are examined. (+info)
Effects of amphetamine on visuospatial working memory performance in schizophrenia spectrum personality disorder.
Our objective was to determine if amphetamine improves visuospatial working memory, which is impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and may be modulated by dopamine in prefrontal cortex. To this end, oral amphetamine (30 mg) was administered to 12 patients with schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders and 13 patients with other, nonschizophrenia-related personality disorders. Visuospatial working memory was assessed using the Dot test; a test in which subjects are asked to memorize and reproduce the position of a dot on a sheet of paper. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders performed significantly worse than the comparison group in the placebo condition and showed significantly greater improvement after amphetamine, as compared to a nonschizophrenia-related personality disorder comparison group. Patients with greatest impairment at baseline improved most. Amphetamine tended to improve negative symptoms; whereas, positive symptoms remained unchanged. Amphetamine may improve visuospatial working memory in schizophrenia spectrum patients. (+info)