Health consciousness of young people in relation to their personality.
Personality of targeted individuals can be assumed to influence behavior modification by health education. In this study the influence of personality on health consciousness was analyzed by a questionnaire for lifestyle, health consciousness, and the NEO-FFI personality test. Subjects were 942 new students in the Tokyo University of Agriculture who were surveyed in April, 1998. Separately performed health examination data were used to verify reliability of answers to the questionnaire. Among students, 83.2% of males and 90.4% of females felt themselves to be healthy, and more than 80% students desired to improve their health more. The rate of having no physical complaints, however, was only 31.7% in males and 20.4% in females. Distribution of NEO-FFI scores of neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (O), agreeableness (A), and conscientiousness (C) corresponded well between males and females, except for significantly higher scores of O and A in females. Odds ratios (ORs) between high and low tertial points of NEO-FFI score for health consciousness were significantly elevated in the high scoring groups of E and C (OR = 6.26, 95% CI = 1.46-26.82, and OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.42-25.71, respectively) in males. On the contrary, high N and O groups had low health consciousness. Smoking habit was associated with high E scores (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.13-4.43). Dietary habits, regular eating time, and avoidance of salty foods were associated with high C scores in both males and females. The OR of regular eating time was 2.66 (95% CI = 1.42-1.98), and 2.20 (95% CI = 1.31-3.71) for males and females, respectively. The OR of avoidance of salty foods were 2.09 (95% CI = 1.11-3.91), 1.87 (95% CI = 1.11-3.16) for males and females, respectively. Significant associations between lifestyle and personality require further study for risk association analysis and for relationship to interventive practices for prevention of lifestyle associated diseases. (+info)
An investigation of primary care patients receiving extended treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychiatric characteristics of a sample of primary care patients receiving extended treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as well as to assess the appropriateness of extended treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective case series of patients (convenience sample) assessed with survey, psychological testing, interview, and medical record review. METHODS: Participants (n = 39) were patients in a health maintenance organization primary care setting receiving treatment with SSRI-type antidepressants for 12 months or longer, with no psychiatric evaluation or treatment immediately before commencement of antidepressant therapy. Each participant completed measures of self-destructive behavior and personality disturbance, underwent a clinical psychiatric interview, and had their medical record reviewed to determine psychiatric diagnoses by the primary care physician at the initiation of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: On psychiatric interview, 64.1% of participants were diagnosed with major depression, the majority recurrent (46.2% of the entire sample); 46.2% with dysthymia; and 38.5% with panic disorder. Psychiatric morbidity in this sample was reflected by recurrent depressive episodes, long-standing depression, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses on interview (average of 1.8 diagnoses per participant), self-harm behaviors, and personality pathology. Seventy-seven percent of primary care diagnoses gleaned from medical records reflected depressive diagnoses. The approximate "match" rate for a depression-spectrum diagnosis between psychiatric interviewer and primary care physicians was 90%; however, on psychiatric interview, 16.7% of participants had bipolar disorder and 38.5% had panic disorder, which were not noted in the primary care medical record. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in primary care settings receiving extended treatment with SSRIs may have complex psychopathology for which long-term antidepressant treatment appears appropriate. (+info)
Parental presence and a sedative premedicant for children undergoing surgery: a hierarchical study.
BACKGROUND: Although some anesthesiologists use oral sedatives or parental presence during induction of anesthesia (PPIA) to treat preoperative anxiety in children, others may use these interventions simultaneously (e.g., sedatives and PPIA). The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether this approach has advantages over treating children with sedatives alone. METHODS: The child's and the parental anxiety throughout the perioperative period was the primary endpoint of the study. Parental satisfaction was the secondary endpoint. Subjects (n = 103) were assigned randomly to one of two groups: a sedative group (0.5 mg/kg oral midazolam) or a sedative and PPIA group. Using standardized measures of anxiety and satisfaction, the effects of the interventions on the children and parents were assessed. Statistical analysis (varimax rotation) of the satisfaction questionnaire items resulted in two factors that described satisfaction of the separation process and satisfaction of the overall care provided. RESULTS: Anxiety in the holding area, at entrance to the operating room, and at introduction of the anesthesia mask did not differ significantly between the two groups (F[2,192] = 1.26, P = 0.28). Parental anxiety after separation, however, was significantly lower in the sedative and PPIA group (F[2,93] = 4.46, P = 0.037). Parental satisfaction with the overall care provided (-0.28 +/- 1.2 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.26, P = 0.046) and with the separation process (-0.30 +/- 1.2 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.20, P = 0.03) was significantly higher among the sedative and PPIA group compared with the sedative group. CONCLUSIONS: PPIA in addition to 0.5 mg/kg oral midazolam has no additive effects in terms of reducing a child's anxiety. Parents who accompanied their children to the operating room, however, were less anxious and more satisfied. (+info)
Childhood predictors of adult medically unexplained hospitalisations. Results from a national birth cohort study.
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that adults with medically unexplained physical symptoms experienced greater ill-health then others (either in themselves or their families) during childhood. AIMS: To test these hypotheses. METHOD: We used data from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development, a population-based cohort study established in 1946 (n = 5362). Subjects were followed from birth in 1946 until 1989 (age 43 years). As outcome, we used operationally defined medically unexplained hospital admissions at age 15-43 years. Exposure variables included childhood illness, and illness in parents during the childhood of the subjects. RESULTS: The risk set (n = 4603) comprised individuals still in the Survey at age 15. Ninety-five unexplained hospital admissions were identified. Subjects whose mothers reported below-average health in the father were at increased risk of subsequent unexplained admissions. Below average reported health in the mother was not associated with this increased risk. Defined physical diseases in childhood were not associated, but persistent abdominal pain at age 7-15 years was. CONCLUSIONS: Unexplained hospital admissions are associated with certain childhood experiences of illness, but defined physical illness in childhood is not a risk factor. (+info)
Personality traits and brain dopaminergic function in Parkinson's disease.
A distinctive personality type, characterized by introversion, inflexibility, and low novelty seeking, has been suggested to be associated with Parkinson's disease. To test the hypothesis that Parkinson's disease is associated with a specific dopamine-related personality type, the personality structures of 61 unmedicated Parkinson's disease patients and 45 healthy controls were examined. Additionally, in 47 Parkinson's disease patients, the dopaminergic function in the brain was directly measured with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-dopa ((18)F-dopa) positron emission tomography (PET) with MRI coregistration. The novelty-seeking personality score, supposedly associated with the parkinsonian personality, was slightly lower in the Parkinson's disease group compared with controls, but it did not have a significant relationship with (18)F-dopa uptake in any of the brain regions studied (r = -0.12 to 0.11, P > 0.15). The harm-avoidance personality score, associated with anxiety and depression, was clearly increased in patients with Parkinson's disease and it had a paradoxical, highly significant positive correlation with the (18)F-dopa uptake in the right caudate nucleus (r = 0.53, P = 0.04, Bonferroni corrected for 220 comparisons). Although the results of this study are not in disagreement with the concept of low-novelty-seeking personality type in Parkinson's disease, the personality type does not seem to be dopamine dependent. The correlation between the personality trait of harm avoidance and (18)F-dopa may reflect a specific feedback circuitry of neurotransmitters that is associated with negative emotionality in Parkinson's disease. (+info)
Validity of the diagnosis of personality disorder in adults with learning disability and severe behavioural problems. Preliminary study.
BACKGROUND: Personality disorder in people with learning disability has received little research attention, with only a handful of cross-sectional surveys of prevalence available. As yet, there have been no studies to include an examination of validity. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of personality disorder in adults with learning disability who are in specialist challenging behaviour in-patient services and to examine the validity of the diagnosis of personality disorder in this group in terms of its association with abusive experience in early life. METHOD: The Standardised Assessment of Personality (SAP) was used to diagnose personality disorder in 36 individuals with mild/moderate learning disability. Case notes were reviewed for details of clinical diagnosis and early psychosocial history. RESULTS: Thirty-nine per cent of the sample met the criteria for severe personality disorder. This diagnosis showed a significant association with early traumatic experience. CONCLUSIONS: Severe personality disorder is a common diagnosis in this group. There is preliminary evidence that the diagnosis is associated with abuse in childhood. (+info)
Attentional mechanisms of borderline personality disorder.
We consider whether disruption of a specific neural circuit related to self-regulation is an underlying biological deficit in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Because patients with BPD exhibit a poor ability to regulate negative affect, we hypothesized that brain mechanisms thought to be involved in such self-regulation would function abnormally even in situations that seem remote from the symptoms exhibited by these patients. To test this idea, we compared the efficiency of attentional networks in BPD patients with controls who were matched to the patients in having very low self-reported effortful control and very high negative emotionality and controls who were average in these two temperamental dimensions. We found that the patients exhibited significantly greater difficulty in their ability to resolve conflict among stimulus dimensions in a purely cognitive task than did average controls but displayed no deficit in overall reaction time, errors, or other attentional networks. The temperamentally matched group did not differ significantly from either group. A significant correlation was found between measures of the ability to control conflict in the reaction-time task and self-reported effortful control. (+info)
Jolly fat: relation between obesity and psychoneurosis in general population.
The relation between fatness and aspects of psychological status was investigated in a representative sample (339 men and 400 women) of a middle-aged suburban population. A significant positive relation was found between substantial obesity and low levels of anxiety (in men and women) and depression (in men). (+info)