Scanning the available Dictyostelium discoideum proteome for O-linked GlcNAc glycosylation sites using neural networks.
Dictyostelium discoideum has been suggested as a eukaryotic model organism for glycobiology studies. Presently, the characteristics of acceptor sites for the N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferases in Dictyostelium discoideum, which link GlcNAc in an alpha linkage to hydroxyl residues, are largely unknown. This motivates the development of a species specific method for prediction of O-linked GlcNAc glycosylation sites in secreted and membrane proteins of D. discoideum. The method presented here employs a jury of artificial neural networks. These networks were trained to recognize the sequence context and protein surface accessibility in 39 experimentally determined O-alpha-GlcNAc sites found in D. discoideum glycoproteins expressed in vivo. Cross-validation of the data revealed a correlation in which 97% of the glycosylated and nonglycosylated sites were correctly identified. Based on the currently limited data set, an abundant periodicity of two (positions-3, -1, +1, +3, etc.) in Proline residues alternating with hydroxyl amino acids was observed upstream and downstream of the acceptor site. This was a consequence of the spacing of the glycosylated residues themselves which were peculiarly found to be situated only at even positions with respect to each other, indicating that these may be located within beta-strands. The method has been used for a rapid and ranked scan of the fraction of the Dictyostelium proteome available in public databases, remarkably 25-30% of which were predicted glycosylated. The scan revealed acceptor sites in several proteins known experimentally to be O-glycosylated at unmapped sites. The available proteome was classified into functional and cellular compartments to study any preferential patterns of glycosylation. A sequence based prediction server for GlcNAc O-glycosylations in D. discoideum proteins has been made available through the WWW at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/DictyOGlyc/ and via E-mail to [email protected] (+info)
Proteomic definition of normal human luminal and myoepithelial breast cells purified from reduction mammoplasties.
Normal human luminal and myoepithelial breast cells separately purified from a set of 10 reduction mammoplasties by using a double antibody magnetic affinity cell sorting and Dynabead immunomagnetic technique were used in two-dimensional gel proteome studies. A total of 43,302 proteins were detected across the 20 samples, and a master image for each cell type comprising a total of 1,738 unique proteins was derived. Differential analysis identified 170 proteins that were elevated 2-fold or more between the two breast cell types, and 51 of these were annotated by tandem mass spectrometry. Muscle-specific enzyme isoforms and contractile intermediate filaments including tropomyosin and smooth muscle (SM22) alpha protein were detected in the myoepithelial cells, and a large number of cytokeratin subclasses and isoforms characteristic of luminal cells were detected in this cell type. A further 134 nondifferentially regulated proteins were also annotated from the two breast cell types, making this the most extensive study to date of the protein expression map of the normal human breast and the basis for future studies of purified breast cancer cells. (+info)
Proteome mapping, mass spectrometric sequencing and reverse transcription-PCR for characterization of the sulfate starvation-induced response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.
A set of proteins induced in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 during growth in the absence of sulfate was characterized by differential two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS. Thirteen proteins were found to be induced de novo or upregulated in P. aeruginosa grown in a succinate/salts medium with sodium cyclohexylsulfamate as the sole sulfur source. Protein spots excised from the two-dimensional gels were analysed by N-terminal Edman sequencing and MS sequencing (MS/MS) of internal protein fragments. The coding sequences for 11 of these proteins were unambiguously identified in the P. aeruginosa genome sequence. Expression of these genes was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, which confirmed that repression in the presence of sulfate was acting at a transcriptional level. Three classes of sulfur-regulated proteins were found. The first class (five proteins) were high-affinity periplasmic solute-binding proteins with apparent specificity for sulfate and sulfonates. A second class included enzymes involved in sulfonate and sulfate ester metabolism (three proteins). The remaining three proteins appeared to be part of a more general stress response, and included two antioxidant proteins and a putative lipoprotein. This study demonstrates the power of the proteomics approach for direct correlation of the responses of an organism to an environmental stimulus with the genetic structures responsible for that response, and the application of reverse transcription-PCR significantly increases the conclusions that can be drawn from the proteomic study. (+info)
The yeast proteome database (YPD) and Caenorhabditis elegans proteome database (WormPD): comprehensive resources for the organization and comparison of model organism protein information.
The Yeast Proteome Database (YPDtrade mark) has been for several years a resource for organized and accessible information about the proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have now extended the YPD format to create a database containing complete proteome information about the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (WormPDtrade mark). YPD and WormPD are designed for use not only by their respective research communities but also by the broader scientific community. In both databases, information gleaned from the literature is presented in a consistent, user-friendly Protein Report format: a single Web page presenting all available knowledge about a particular protein. Each Protein Report begins with a Title Line, a concise description of the function of that protein that is continually updated as curators review new literature. Properties and functions of the protein are presented in tabular form in the upper part of the Report, and free-text annotations organized by topic are presented in the lower part. Each Protein Report ends with a comprehensive reference list whose entries are linked to their MEDLINE s. YPD and WormPD are seamlessly integrated, with extensive links between the species. They are freely accessible to academic users on the WWW at http://www. proteome.com/databases/index.html, and are available by subscription to corporate users. (+info)
MITOP, the mitochondrial proteome database: 2000 update.
MITOP (http://www.mips.biochem.mpg.de/proj/medgen/mitop/) is a comprehensive database for genetic and functional information on both nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded proteins and their genes. The five species files--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Neurospora crassa and Homo sapiens--include annotated data derived from a variety of online resources and the literature. A wide spectrum of search facilities is given in the overlapping sections 'Gene catalogues', 'Protein catalogues', 'Homologies', 'Pathways and metabolism' and 'Human disease catalogue' including extensive references and hyperlinks to other databases. Central features are the results of various homology searches, which should facilitate the investigations into interspecies relationships. Precomputed FASTA searches using all the MITOP yeast protein entries and a list of the best human EST hits with graphical cluster alignments related to the yeast reference sequence are presented. The orthologue tables with cross-listings to all the protein entries for each species in MITOP have been expanded by adding the genomes of Rickettsia prowazeckii and Escherichia coli. To find new mitochondrial proteins the complete yeast genome has been analyzed using the MITOPROT program which identifies mitochondrial targeting sequences. The 'Human disease catalogue' contains tables with a total of 110 human diseases related to mitochondrial protein abnormalities, sorted by clinical criteria and age of onset. MITOP should contribute to the systematic genetic characterization of the mitochondrial proteome in relation to human disease. (+info)
Proteome analysis using selective incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids.
A method is described for identifying intact proteins from genomic databases using a combination of accurate molecular mass measurements and partial amino acid content. An initial demonstration was conducted for proteins isolated from Escherichia coli (E. coli) using a multiple auxotrophic strain of K12. Proteins extracted from the organism grown in natural isotopic abundance minimal medium and also minimal medium containing isotopically labeled leucine (Leu-D10), were mixed and analyzed by capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR). The incorporation of the isotopically labeled Leu residue has no effect on the CIEF separation of the protein, therefore both versions of the protein are observed within the same FTICR spectrum. The difference in the molecular mass of the natural isotopic abundance and Leu-D10 isotopically labeled proteins is used to determine the number of Leu residues present in that particular protein. Knowledge of the molecular mass and number of Leu residues present can be used to unambiguously identify the intact protein. Preliminary results show the efficacy of this method for unambiguously identifying proteins isolated from E. coli. (+info)
Research in the exercise sciences: where do we go from here?
The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how research involving the acute and chronic effects of exercise (referred to as "exercise sciences") on the structure and function of organs systems will evolve in the next century. Within the last 30 years, exercise-related research has rapidly transitioned from an organ to a subcellular/molecular focus. Thus future research will continue to be heavily influenced by molecular biology tools, fueled by both emerging technologies (e.g., "gene-chip microarrays") designed to dissect gene function on a macro scale as well as by the completion of the human genome project in which the approximately 80,000 genes comprising humans will be completely sequenced. These successes will drive the emerging fields of functional genomics (the dissecting of a gene's identity and function) and proteomics (the study of the properties of proteins). Funding levels at the National Institutes of Health will likely increase in order to expand these emerging fields as well as provide avenues for translating fundamental knowledge into solving the complexities of a number of degenerative diseases influenced heavily by activity/inactivity factors such as cardiopulmonary disease, diabetes, obesity, and the debilitating disorders associated with aging. Thus there are many challenges facing future exercise scientists who must harness the new technologies and take an aggressive stance in bringing this important field to the forefront. (+info)
Proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis extracellular proteins: a two-dimensional protein electrophoretic study.
To analyse the proteome of Bacillus subtilis extracellular proteins, extracellular protein samples were prepared from culture media (minimal medium containing 0.4% glucose) of parental B. subtilis 168, a secA-temperature sensitive mutant and an ffh conditional mutant, and examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Approximately 100 to 110 spots were visualized in a gel of B. subtilis 168 extracellular proteins. Over 90% and 80% of these disappeared in the absence of SecA and Ffh, respectively. Thirty-eight obvious spots on the gel of the B. subtilis 168 preparation were selected and compared with spots obtained under SecA- or Ffh-deficient conditions. The appearance of 36 of these 38 spots depended on SecA and Ffh. Nineteen additional extracellular proteins were detected in cultures maintained in cellobiose, maltose and soluble starch. Among 23 proteins of which the N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined, 17 were extracellular proteins having signal peptides in their precursor form. Two membrane proteins, Yfnl and YflE, were cleaved behind 226Ala-Tyr-Ala228 and 213Ala-Leu-Ala215, respectively, and of which products seemed to be liberated into the culture medium. The production of Yfnl and YflE were also dependent on SecA and Ffh. These results indicate that most extracellular proteins target to and translocate across the cytoplasmic membrane by co-operation between the signal-recognition particle and Sec protein-secretion pathways. In contrast, a spot for Hag appeared independent from SecA and Ffh. Intracellular proteins Gap, SodA and KatA were identified in the extracellular protein samples. On the basis of these results and computer searches, it was predicted that B. subtilis produces 150 to 180 proteins extracellularly. (+info)