Body piercing in the accident and emergency department.
Recently an increasing number of patients with complications related to pierced body jewellery have been seen. Often removal of the jewellery is indicated. Removal of these items may also be required for radiological purposes. If the doctor is familiar with the opening mechanism of the item, removal is not usually difficult. Uninformed attempts at removal may cause unnecessary trauma and distress. In a survey of 28 accident and emergency doctors, only six were able accurately to describe the opening mechanisms of all three commonly used types of jewellery. Descriptions of the types of jewellery currently used are not available in the medical literature. The aim of this article is to familiarize doctors with the types of jewellery used, describe their opening mechanisms, and suggest techniques for their removal. The complications of body piercing and the indications for the removal of body jewellery are also outlined. (+info)
Diphenhydramine disposition in the sheep maternal-placental-fetal unit: gestational age, plasma drug protein binding, and umbilical blood flow effects on clearance.
The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships between maternal and fetal plasma drug protein binding, umbilical blood flow (Q(um)), gestational age (GA), and maternal-fetal diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearances in chronically instrumented pregnant sheep. Maternal and fetal DPHM placental (CL(mf) and CL(fm), respectively) and nonplacental (CL(mo) and CL(fo), respectively) clearances and steady-state plasma protein binding were determined in 18 pregnant sheep at 124 to 140 days' gestation (term, approximately 145 days). The data demonstrated a highly significant fall of approximately 66% in CL(fm) and a decreasing trend in CL(fo) ( approximately 47%) over the GA range studied. However, no such relationships existed between GA and CL(mf) or CL(mo). Concomitant with this was a decrease in fetal DPHM plasma unbound fraction with GA, with no such change being evident in the mother. Both CL(mo) and CL(fo) were related to the respective DPHM plasma unbound fraction. A strong relationship also existed between fetal plasma unbound fraction and CL(fm). Thus, the decrease in fetal unbound fraction of DPHM during gestation could contribute to the fall in CL(fm), and possibly CL(fo). However, over the GA range studied, fetal DPHM free fraction decreased by approximately 47%, whereas CL(fm) fell by approximately 66%. Because fetal unbound fraction and CL(fm) are linearly related, the GA-associated fall in unbound fraction appears to be insufficient to account for the entire decline in CL(fm). In separate studies in pregnant sheep, we observed a approximately 40% fall in weight-normalized Q(um) between 125 and 137 days' gestation. Because CL(fm) for DPHM is similar to that of flow-limited compounds (e.g., ethanol, antipyrine), this decrease in Q(um) may also contribute to the GA-related fall in CL(fm). (+info)
The Pitx2 protein in mouse development.
The Rieger syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder involving ocular, dental, and umbilical defects is caused by mutations in PITX2, a Bicoid-type homeobox protein. Mouse Pitx2 mRNA is expressed in eye, tooth and umbilicus consistent with the human Riegers phenotype. Moreover, Pitx2 is involved in the Nodal/Sonic hedgehog pathway that determines left/right polarity. In this report we demonstrate a 32-kDa polypeptide on Western blots of nuclear extracts from a rat pituitary cell line, using a Pitx2 specific antibody (designated P2R10). We describe also for the first time expression of the Pitx2 protein in mouse. Pitx2 protein immunostaining was detectable during the development of the eye, tooth, umbilicus, and also in the pituitary, heart, gut, and limb. We demonstrate for the first time directly that Pitx2 is asymmetrically expressed in early heart, gut, and lung development. (+info)
Elimination of biliary stones through the urinary tract: a complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
The introduction and popularization of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been accompanied with a considerable increase in perforation of gallbladder during this procedure (10% - 32%), with the occurrence of intraperitoneal bile spillage and the consequent increase in the incidence of lost gallstones (0.2% - 20%). Recently the complications associated with these stones have been documented in the literature. We report a rare complication occurring in an 81-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed cutaneous fistula to the umbilicus and elimination of biliary stones through the urinary tract. During the cholecystectomy, the gall bladder was perforated, and bile and gallstones were spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Two months after the initial procedure there was exteriorization of fistula through the umbilicus, with intermittent elimination of biliary stones. After eleven months, acute urinary retention occurred due to biliary stones in the bladder, which were removed by cystoscopy. We conclude that efforts should be concentrated on avoiding the spillage of stones during the surgery, and that no rules exist for indicating a laparotomy simply to retrieve these lost gallstones. (+info)
A prospective, randomised trial of prophylactic antibiotics versus bag extraction in the prophylaxis of wound infection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Septic complications are rare following laparoscopic cholecystectomy if prophylactic antibiotics are given, as demonstrated in previous studies. Antibiotic treatment may be unnecessary and, therefore, undesirable, so we compared two forms of prophylaxis: a cephalosporin antibiotic and bag extraction of the dissected gallbladder. A total of 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to either receive an antibiotic or to have their gallbladder removed from the abdomen in a plastic bag. Complicated cases were excluded. There was a total of 6 wound infections (7.9%), 3 in each of the study groups. All these were associated with skin commensals. There were no other septic complications. Bacteriological studies grouped the organisms isolated from the bile and the wound as potential pathogens and likely commensals. A total of 10 potential pathogens were isolated, 9 of which were found in the group receiving antibiotics. We conclude that septic sequelae of uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy are uncommon, but clearly not entirely prevented by antibiotic or mechanical prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotics may not be required in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Further study is warranted. (+info)
Implantable insulin pumps: infections most likely due to seeding from skin flora determine severe outcomes of pump-pocket seromas.
Complications at implantation site of implantable insulin pumps may lead to premature removal. To elucidate the origins and the outcomes of these local adverse events. We investigated seromas of the 'pump-pocket' that have been detected for an eight month-period during the follow-up of such-treated forty type 1 diabetic patients. At the start of study period, skin bacterial flora was sampled at umbilicus and groin, and isolated strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were preserved in specific vials at -20 degrees C. Each time a seroma was detected at transcutaneous 45 days-refill of pump reservoir, it was sampled for bacterial cultures. Isolated strains of S. epidermidis from seroma were genetically compared to preserved strains of corresponding patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) after genomic restriction by SmaI. Among the ten seromas that occurred after a mean time of 9.9 months since implantation, S. epidermidis were isolated in five cases. Genetic comparison of isolated strains could be performed in three cases. Compared strains showed identical (in 2 cases) or closely related (in one case) PFGE profiles. While the five aseptic seromas resolved with rest, four infected cases required explantations after one to nineteen months in spite of antibiotic therapy and the fifth one persisted without impairment under long-term antibiotics. Our results suggest that seeding from the skin flora is a key-factor determining the severity of pump-pocket complications. We recommend that bacterial investigations of pump-pocket seromas should be systematically performed, while prophylactic measures might include antibiotic cover for each puncture of the pump-pocket. (+info)
Recovery of anaerobic bacteria from 3 patients with infection at a pierced body site.
We describe 3 adolescents who developed infections due to anaerobes at pierced body sites: the nipple, the umbilicus, and the nasal septum. Anaerobes (Prevotella intermedia and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius) were recovered from pure culture of specimens obtained from 1 patient with nipple infection and were mixed with aerobic bacteria in cultures of specimens obtained from 2 patients (Streptococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Prevotella melaninogenica were recovered from a patient with nasal septum infection, and Bacteroides fragilis and Enterococcus faecalis were recovered from a patient with umbilical infection). The infection resolved in all patients after removal of the ornaments and use of antimicrobial drug treatment. (+info)
Significant abdominal wall hematoma from an umbilical port insertion.
Laparoscopists consider the umbilical and ventral midline area to be "vascular safe." On occasion, however, the insertion of the first trocar at the umbilical port may result in severe abdominal wall hematoma. (+info)