The case of disability in the family: impact on health care utilization and expenditures for nondisabled members.
Families with a disabled member undergo heightened emotional and financial stress, which can arise from caring for the person with one or more disabilities over the life course or at the end of life. Because health care resources are strained by the needs of the disabled family member, nondisabled members are often limited in health care access and utilization when they are most in need of care. This analysis uses the National Medical Expenditure Survey to describe families with disabled members, based on multiple definitions of disability, and to examine health care utilization and expenditures by nondisabled family members. Indications of higher use of medical care by adult, nondisabled members of such families support the frequent reports in the literature of stress occurring in these situations. The signals of a household rationing effect for families near and at poverty levels should alert policy makers to consider the needs of the whole family when creating or modifying assistance programs. (+info)
Can routine information systems be used to monitor serious disability?
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reliable birth cohort prevalence rates of disabling conditions in early childhood can be obtained from child health information systems. DESIGN: Comparison of two sources of information on motor and sensory disabilities: from child health information systems held by health authorities, and a population register that uses multiple sources of ascertainment. SETTING: The counties of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Northamptonshire. PARTICIPANTS: Children born to residents of the three counties between 1984 and 1989. RESULTS: Eight hundred and twenty children (6.0/1000 live births) were identified from the child health system as having one or more of the conditions, and 580 (4.2/1000 live births) were identified from the population register; however, only 284 children were identified by both sources. CONCLUSIONS: It is currently impossible to monitor trends in the prevalence rate of disabling disorders in childhood using the child health information systems. Agreement about ways of collecting, recording, and collating information on disability would be a useful step towards realising the full potential of these systems. (+info)
Four key questions that identify severe disability.
BACKGROUND: Six hundred and four surviving children aged 2 years, who had been entered into a neonatal trial of fresh frozen plasma on the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage, were grouped into four categories of disability based on a review by a full paediatric assessment. A 29 item questionnaire completed by the children's health visitors was used to group the children into the same categories. AIMS: To explore whether severe disability could be identified by using only a few of the 29 questions. METHOD: The sensitivity and specificity of individual questions were used first to find the subset of questions that best identified children with severe disability. The efficacy of the four most useful questions was tested in a separate cohort of 105 children for whom health visitors had completed questionnaires at the age of 2 years, and who had similarly been assessed by a paediatrician. RESULTS: In the original trial cohort, the four questions correctly identified 56 of the 61 children with the most severe disabilities as assessed by the paediatrician, and seven children were falsely identified as being severely disabled. In the second cohort, the four questions correctly identified six of the seven children classified as severely disabled by the paediatrician, with no false positives. CONCLUSION: If four such questions were included in routine child information systems at age 2 years, it might be possible to obtain useful data on the prevalence of severe disability in children. (+info)
Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa's non-pregnant population.
The contribution of malaria to morbidity and mortality among people in Africa has been a subject of academic interest, political advocacy, and speculation. National statistics for much of sub-Saharan Africa have proved to be an unreliable source of disease-specific morbidity and mortality data. Credible estimates of disease-specific burdens are required for setting global and national priorities for health in order to rationalize the use of limited resources and lobby for financial support. We have taken an empirical approach to defining the limits of Plasmodium falciparum transmission across the continent and interpolated the distributions of projected populations in 1995. By combining a review of the literature on malaria in Africa and models of acquired functional immunity, we have estimated the age-structured rates of the fatal, morbid and disabling sequelae following exposure to malaria infection under different epidemiological conditions. (+info)
A method for bronchoscopic evaluation of salivary aspiration in a disabled child.
Chronic aspiration is a cause of life-threatening respiratory complications and repeated hospital admissions, particularly in children with neurological disabilities. Determining the source of aspiration is important for optimizing treatment. This report describes a simple technique to demonstrate salivary aspiration during fibreoptic bronchoscopy. A child with a history of recurrent pneumonia was given methylene blue orally 2 h prior to fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopy was carried out through a laryngeal mask airway under inhalational anaesthesia. The stained saliva was seen to be pooling in the valleculae and then running down the trachea into the bronchi, confirming salivary aspiration. (+info)
Behaviour management needs for the orthodontic treatment of children with disabilities.
A displeasing dental appearance may have a significant emotional impact on an individual's well being. Although malocclusions occur more often in physically and/or mentally handicapped children than in normal children, the most severely handicapped patients are those least likely to receive orthodontic treatment. This investigation studied the modes of behaviour management used in the orthodontic treatment of disabled children, and the preferred criteria. The files of 49 disabled children were retrospectively evaluated. Two classification systems, the Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale (FBRS), and that of Owen and Graber were found to be unsuitable for determining the appropriate treatment modality. Five specific factors, frequently seen in disabled children, gag reflex, drooling, uncontrollable movements, inability to remain still, and the need for additional procedures, were graded and a scoring system was devised to include these factors within the assessment. This scoring system may be used to evaluate new patients and to assist in the choice of the appropriate behavioural management mode. (+info)
Orthodontic treatment for disabled children: motivation, expectation, and satisfaction.
This study was designed to measure motivation for and expectations of proposed orthodontic treatment for disabled children, and to examine the level of satisfaction with the results of this treatment, in the eyes of the parents. A two-part questionnaire was sent to the parents of consecutively treated disabled children. The first part was sent to the parents of all the patients treated, while the second was only sent to those whose child had completed treatment. The response rate was over 90 per cent. The parents expected improvement in the child's appearance with a concomitant improvement in his/her social acceptance. These expectations from the treatment were found to be exaggerated, with only a minority of the parents claiming a marked improvement in their child's everyday functioning (four out of 27), or a significant social improvement (six out of 27). Nevertheless, most of the parents (26 out of 27) were satisfied with the treatment, and reported that 17 of the children themselves, who were aware of a change, considered it an improvement. A majority of the children understood the reasons for treatment, in the most general of terms. Close friends regarded treatment results as positive (20 out of 27). With only one exception, the parents stated that they would repeat the procedure, given the same set of circumstances, and all of them would recommend it for other disabled children. It may be concluded that even though orthodontic treatment in this groups of patients does not yield the desired social influence, the individual benefits from the treatment are worthwhile. (+info)