Similarity between neonatal profile and socioeconomic index: a spatial approach.
This study aims to compare neonatal characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in Rio de Janeiro city neighborhoods in order to identify priority areas for intervention. The study design was ecological. Two databases were used: the Brazilian Population Census and the Live Birth Information System, aggregated by neighborhoods. Spatial analysis, multivariate cluster classification, and Moran's I statistics for detection of spatial clustering were used. A similarity index was created to compare socioeconomic clusters with the neonatal profile in each neighborhood. The proportions of Apgar score above 8 and cesarean sections showed positive spatial correlation and high similarity with the socioeconomic index. The proportion of low birth weight infants showed a random spatial distribution, indicating that at this scale of analysis, birth weight is not sufficiently sensitive to discriminate subtler differences among population groups. The observed relationship between the neighborhoods' neonatal profile (particularly Apgar score and mode of delivery) and socioeconomic conditions shows evidence of a change in infant health profile, where the possibility for intervention shifts to medical services and the Apgar score assumes growing significance as a risk indicator. (+info)
Normal gestations and live births after orthotopic autograft of vitrified-warmed hemi-ovaries into ewes.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of autotransplantation of vitrified warmed hemi-ovaries into ewes. METHODS: Six hemi-ovaries from six ewes aged 6 to 12 months were vitrified. After dissection of the medulla, the hemi-ovarian cortex was stored at -196 degrees C in liquid nitrogen. Four to six weeks after the first laparotomy, the left ovary was removed and the vitrified-warmed hemi-ovary was sutured. RESULTS: Plasma progesterone concentration increased in a regular manner in all ewes. Three pregnancies occurred, from which four lambs were born. The first delivery of a normal lamb occurred in February 2003. The second delivery of two normal lambs occurred in March 2003 (a 2.5 kg male and a 2.8 kg female). The last lamb had a normal delivery but had a malformation of the left leg and the oesophagus. This lamb died two months after delivery from pneumariae. Histological examination of the grafted vitrified ovaries showed few primordial and antral follicles. CONCLUSIONS: These three pregnancies in a ewe model may indicate that ovarian vitrification gives results as good as those from a slow cooling protocol in autograft. It is impossible to establish a link between the vitrification procedure and the malformation of the last lamb, and further studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility of ovarian vitrification. (+info)
Recombination in men with Klinefelter syndrome.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS: 47,XXY), occurs in one in 1000 male births. Men with KS are infertile and have higher rates of aneuploidies in sperm compared with normal fertile men. In the course of analyzing recombination in a population of infertile men, we observed that four men in our study presented with KS. We examined whether these men differed in recombination parameters among themselves and relative to normal men. Even though the number of men with KS analyzed was small, we observed remarkable variation in spermatogenesis. In spite of the fact that the men had the same genetic cause for infertility, two of four KS patients had few or no spermatogenic cells that progressed through meiosis to the pachytene stage, whereas the other two men produced abundant pachytene cells that had recombination frequencies comparable with those of fertile men, although one had a significant reduction in fidelity of synapsis. Moreover, regardless of histological appearance, examination of outcomes of assisted reproduction indicated that sperm were extracted from testis biopsies in all four cases, and when used in assisted reproductive practices chromosomally normal babies were born. These results reinforce that: (i) men with the same underlying genetic cause for infertility do not present with uniform pathology, (ii) the checkpoint machinery that might arrest spermatogenesis in the face of chromosomal abnormalities does not prevent pockets of complete spermatogenesis in men with KS, and (iii) aneuploidy, in some cases, is compatible with birth of a chromosomally normal child, suggesting that sperm produced from a background of aneuploidy can be normal in men with KS. (+info)
Live birth rate is significantly higher after blastocyst transfer than after cleavage-stage embryo transfer when at least four embryos are available on day 3 of embryo culture. A randomized prospective study.
INTRODUCTION: In a randomized controlled trial, we assessed whether pregnancy outcome would be improved by extending embryo culture to day 5 and transferring a blastocyst in patients with at least four good-quality embryos on day 3. METHODS: Multifollicular ovarian stimulation was performed with a GnRH agonist in 44% of patients and with a GnRH antagonist in 56%. Overall, 164 patients younger than 37 years fulfilled embryo quality criteria (at least four having at least six cells on the morning of day 3, maximum 20% anucleate fragments) on the third day of culture and were randomized to the day 3 (n = 84) or day 5 (n = 80) groups. Equal numbers of embryos (n = 2) were transferred in each group. RESULTS: Demographics, stimulation parameters and embryological data were comparable in the two groups. Blastocyst-stage transfer resulted in a significantly higher ongoing pregnancy rate [51.3 versus 27.4%; odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-5.34] and live birth rate (47.5 versus 27.4%; OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.25-4.59) compared with day-3 embryo transfer. A high twin birth rate was observed in both groups (36.8 versus 30.4%; P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A threshold of four good embryos on the third day of embryo culture appears to indicate that the patient will benefit from embryo transfer at the blastocyst stage and have a better chance of achieving a live delivery than with cleavage-stage embryo transfer. (+info)
Randomized single versus double embryo transfer: obstetric and paediatric outcome and a cost-effectiveness analysis.
BACKGROUND: Transfer of several embryos after IVF results in a high multiple birth rate associated with increased morbidity and high costs for the neonatal care. In a previous randomized trial we demonstrated that a single embryo transfer (SET) strategy, including one fresh single embryo transfer and, if no live birth, one additional frozen-thawed SET, resulted in a live-birth rate that was not substantially lower than after double embryo transfer (DET) but markedly reduced the multiple birth rate. METHODS: We compared costs for maternal health care and productivity losses and paediatric costs for the SET and DET strategies. In addition, maternal and paediatric outcomes between the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The SET strategy resulted in lower average total costs from treatment until 6 months after delivery. There were a few more deliveries with at least one live-born child in the DET group. The incremental cost per extra delivery in the DET alternative was high, 71 940. The rates of prematurely born and low birthweight children were significantly lower with the SET strategy. There were also markedly fewer maternal and paediatric complications in the SET group. CONCLUSIONS: The SET strategy is superior to the DET strategy, when number of deliveries with at least one live-born child, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and maternal and paediatric complications are taken into consideration. The findings do not support continuing transfers of two embryos in this group of patients. (+info)
Clinics in diagnostic imaging (106). Viable left tubal twin ectopic pregnancy.
Live twin ectopic gestations are extremely rare. There are more than 100 reported twin tubal pregnancies but less than ten have foetal cardiac motions demonstrated in both embryos. We describe an additional patient with live twin ectopic gestation. A 32-year-old woman presented with increasing left-sided abdominal pains. She had a high beta-hCG level and a significant history of subfertility with previous surgical intervention. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed viable left tubal twin ectopic pregnancy. The diagnosis was confirmed at surgery. Factors that contribute to the risk of ectopic pregnancy, diagnosis and the management of this condition are described. (+info)
Comparison of different treatment strategies in IVF with cumulative live birth over a given period of time as the primary end-point: methodological considerations on a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.
BACKGROUND: We discuss methodological considerations related to a study in IVF, which compares the effectiveness, health economics and patient discomfort of two treatment strategies that differ in both ovarian stimulation and embryo transfer policies. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial in two large Dutch IVF centres. The tested treatment strategies are: mild ovarian stimulation [including gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist co-treatment] together with the transfer of one embryo, versus conventional stimulation (with GnRH agonist long protocol co-treatment) and the transfer of two embryos. Outcome measures are: (i) pregnancies resulting in term live birth; (ii) total costs per term live birth; and (iii) patient stress/discomfort per started IVF treatment, over a 12 month period. Power considerations for this study were an overall cumulative live birth rate of 45% for the conventional treatment strategy, with non-inferiority of the mild treatment strategy defined as a live birth rate no more than 12.5% lower compared with the conventional study arm. For a power of 80% and alpha of 0.05, 400 subjects are required. RESULTS: As planned, from February 2002 until February 2004, 410 patients were enrolled. CONCLUSIONS: This effectiveness study applies an integrated medical, health economics and psychological approach with term live birth over a given period of time after starting IVF as the end-point. Complete and timely patient enrolment vindicates many of the design decisions. (+info)
The management and outcome of 18 pregnancies in women with polycythemia vera.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polycythemia vera (PV) is rare in women of childbearing age with only 20 previous pregnancies reported. DESIGN AND METHODS: We report a series of 18 pregnancies (19 fetuses) in eight women with PV managed prior to or following implementation of management guidelines tailored to PV in pregnancy, and review the literature. RESULTS: Seven of these pregnancies were managed by standard antenatal care (group A) without specific attention to the women's PV. All remaining 11 pregnancies (group B) were managed following a formal protocol and received tailored management principally comprising tight control of the hematocrit by venesection, and the use of interferon ? in three patients, in addition to aspirin 75 mg, and prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Each pregnancy was monitored with uterine artery Doppler examinations and regular fetal scanning. In group A (n=7) there was one live birth, which required delivery at 34 weeks due to placental insufficiency, three first trimester miscarriages, two stillbirths and one combined stillbirth and neonatal death (twins) associated with placental dysfunction. All 11 patients in group B received aspirin and post-partum LMWH; four also received venesection (during pregnancy), three interferon-a and three antenatal LMWH. There were ten live births, nine at term, one first trimester miscarriage and no intrauterine growth retardation. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy in PV without meticulous attention to hematocrit is associated with poor fetal outcome. Aggressive intervention with control of hematocrit, aspirin and some LMWH appears to be associated with significantly better outcome (p=0.0017). (+info)