Outer membrane protein profiles of paired nasopharyngeal and middle ear isolates of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Mexican children with acute otitis media.
We studied nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) isolates from simultaneous cultures of nasopharyngeal exudates (NEs) and middle ear fluids (MEFs) obtained by tympanocentesis from 57 children with acute otitis media (AOM). Preparations of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from 14 pairs of NTHi strains recovered from NEs and MEFs from 10 children with unilateral AOM and four with bilateral AOM were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NTHi subtypes were determined by comparing the OMP profiles of the isolated strains with those of eight reference NTHi subtypes. Of the 14 pairs, 10 (71%) were identical, and one (8%) was different; three strains isolated from NEs (21%) did not correspond to any of the reference subtypes (nonsubtypable). Subtypes 4, 6, 5, 3, and 8 were isolated in the present study, thereby showing that their distribution is similar to that of subtypes isolated from children with AOM in the United States and suggesting that common otogenic strains are widely distributed in North America. (+info)
Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth.
Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment. (+info)
Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.
Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. (+info)
Proficiency of clinical laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
Early detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci is important for preventing its spread among hospitalized patients. We surveyed the ability of eight hospital laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. and found that although laboratories can reliably detect high-level vancomycin resistance, many have difficulty detecting low-level resistance. (+info)
Calcium absorption and kinetics are similar in 7- and 8-year-old Mexican-American and Caucasian girls despite hormonal differences.
To assess the possibility of ethnic differences in mineral metabolism in prepubertal children, we compared measures of calcium metabolism in 7- and 8-y-old Mexican-American (MA) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (CAU) girls (n = 38) living in southeastern Texas. We found similar fractional calcium absorption, urinary calcium excretion, calcium kinetic values and total-body bone mineral content in the MA and CAU girls. In contrast, parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were greater in MA girls (4.01 +/- 0.47 vs. 1. 96 +/- 0.50 pmol/L, P = 0.005) than in CAU girls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were lower in MA girls (68.9 +/- 7.7 vs. 109.4 +/- 8.4 nmol/L, P = 0.001) than in CAU girls, but 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations did not differ between groups. Seasonal variability was seen for 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls of both ethnic groups, but values in all of the girls were >30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL). We conclude the following: 1) greater PTH levels in MA girls than CAU girls are present without evidence of vitamin D deficiency; and 2) differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations between MA and CAU girls do not have a large effect on calcium absorption, excretion or bone calcium kinetics. These data do not provide evidence for adjusting dietary recommendations for mineral or vitamin D intake by MA girls. (+info)
High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico.
In developing countries, rapid industrialization without environmental controls has resulted in heavy metal contamination of communities. We hypothesized that residential neighborhoods located near ore industries in three northern Mexican cities would be heavily polluted with multiple contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and that these sites would be point sources for the heavy metals. To evaluate these hypotheses, we obtained samples of roadside surface dust from residential neighborhoods within 2 m of metal smelters [Torreon (n = 19)] and Chihuahua (n = 19)] and a metal refinery [Monterrey (n = 23)]. Heavy metal concentrations in dust were mapped with respect to distance from the industrial sites. Correlation between dust metal concentration and distance was estimated with least-squares regression using log-transformed data. Median dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations were 32, 10, and 277 microg/g, respectively, in Chihuahua; 42, 2, and 467 microg/g, respectively, in Monterrey, and 113, 112, and 2,448 microg/g, respectively, in Torreon. Dust concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly higher around the active smelter in Torreon, where more than 90% of samples exceeded Superfund cleanup goals. At all sites, dust concentrations were inversely related to distance from the industrial source, implicating these industries as the likely source of the contamination. We concluded that residential neighborhoods around metal smelting and refining sites in these three cities are contaminated by heavy metals at concentrations likely to pose a health threat to people living nearby. Evaluations of human exposure near these sites should be conducted. Because multiple heavy metal pollutants may exist near smelter sites, researchers should avoid attributing toxicity to one heavy metal unless others have been measured and shown not to coexist. (+info)
Linkage of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of age at onset to a genetic location on chromosome 10q in Mexican Americans.
Since little is known about chromosomal locations harboring type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes, we conducted a genomewide scan for such genes in a Mexican American population. We used data from 27 low-income extended Mexican American pedigrees consisting of 440 individuals for whom genotypic data are available for 379 markers. We used a variance-components technique to conduct multipoint linkage analyses for two phenotypes: type 2 diabetes (a discrete trait) and age at onset of diabetes (a truncated quantitative trait). For the multipoint analyses, a subset of 295 markers was selected on the basis of optimal spacing and informativeness. We found significant evidence that a susceptibility locus near the marker D10S587 on chromosome 10q influences age at onset of diabetes (LOD score 3.75) and is also linked with type 2 diabetes itself (LOD score 2.88). This susceptibility locus explains 63.8%+/-9.9% (P=. 000016) of the total phenotypic variation in age at onset of diabetes and 65.7%+/-10.9% (P=.000135) of the total variation in liability to type 2 diabetes. Weaker evidence was found for linkage of diabetes and of age at onset to regions on chromosomes 3p, 4q, and 9p. In conclusion, our strongest evidence for linkage to both age at onset of diabetes and type 2 diabetes itself in the Mexican American population was for a region on chromosome 10q. (+info)
Linkage disequilibrium at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci and risk of alcoholism.
Two of the three class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes (ADH2 and ADH3) encode known functional variants that act on alcohol with different efficiencies. Variants at both these genes have been implicated in alcoholism in some populations because allele frequencies differ between alcoholics and controls. Specifically, controls have higher frequencies of the variants with higher Vmax (ADH2*2 and ADH3*1). In samples both of alcoholics and of controls from three Taiwanese populations (Chinese, Ami, and Atayal) we found significant pairwise disequilibrium for all comparisons of the two functional polymorphisms and a third, presumably neutral, intronic polymorphism in ADH2. The class I ADH genes all lie within 80 kb on chromosome 4; thus, variants are not inherited independently, and haplotypes must be analyzed when evaluating the risk of alcoholism. In the Taiwanese Chinese we found that, only among those chromosomes containing the ADH3*1 variant (high Vmax), the proportions of chromosomes with ADH2*1 (low Vmax) and those with ADH2*2 (high Vmax) are significantly different between alcoholics and controls (P<10-5). The proportions of chromosomes with ADH3*1 and those with ADH3*2 are not significantly different between alcoholics and controls, on a constant ADH2 background (with ADH2*1, P=.83; with ADH2*2, P=.53). Thus, the observed differences in the frequency of the functional polymorphism at ADH3, between alcoholics and controls, can be accounted for by the disequilibrium with ADH2 in this population. (+info)