Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Korea.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease occurring in women of reproductive age and leading to progressive respiratory failure in spite of treatment. In Korea the first case was reported in 1984 and by 1997 a total of 23 cases had been reported. The clinical findings of these Korean cases are reviewed. METHODS: The details of 10 cases of LAM on file at Seoul National University Hospital were reviewed together with those of 13 cases previously reported from other Korean institutes. Two, including the only one to be reported in a man, were excluded after reviewing the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, leaving a total of 21 cases in the present study. RESULTS: All 21 patients were women and in all cases the disease was proven pathologically. The mean (SD) age at onset of symptoms was 32 (8.6) years. The most common symptoms were dyspnoea and pneumothorax which were seen in 19 (90%) and 13 (76%) patients, respectively. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased transfer factor (TLCO) (100%) and airflow limitation (67%). All the cases had characteristic cysts on high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning. The overall severity score based on HRCT scans correlated with the percentage predicted TLCO/VA (p = 0.03) and FEV1/FVC (p = 0.02). The patients were all treated with medroxyprogesterone and/or tamoxifen. Follow up was possible in 10 cases. Two of these patients appeared to stabilise with no appreciable change clinically or in lung function on medroxyprogesterone and/or tamoxifen, but the remaining patients all deteriorated with two dying of respiratory insufficiency and one of infection following lung transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: As in other countries, in Korea LAM occurs exclusively in women and progresses despite hormonal treatment. (+info)
Metastatic endometrial stromal sarcoma masquerading as pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
A 39 year old female presented with bilateral pneumothoraces and interstitial shadowing on chest x ray. A diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis was made following an open lung biopsy. Over the next eight years she developed respiratory failure leading to single lung transplantation but she died in the immediate postoperative period. Necropsy examination and review of the previous open lung biopsy revealed multiple pulmonary metastases from a low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus. This case high-lights the importance of an accurate diagnosis before transplantation. (+info)
Mutational analysis of the tuberous sclerosis gene TSC2 in patients with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder limited almost exclusively to women of reproductive age. LAM affects about 5% of women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). LAM also occurs in women who do not have TSC (sporadic LAM). TSC is a tumour suppressor gene syndrome characterised by seizures, mental retardation, and tumours in the brain, heart, and kidney. Angiomyolipomas, which are benign tumours with smooth muscle, fat, and dysplastic vascular components, are the most common renal tumour in TSC. Renal angiomyolipomas also occur in 63% of sporadic LAM patients. We recently found that 54% of these angiomyolipomas have TSC2 loss of heterozygosity, leading to the hypothesis that sporadic LAM is genetically related to TSC. In this study, we screened DNA from 21 women with sporadic LAM for mutations in all 41 exons of TSC2. Twelve of the patients had known renal angiomyolipomas. No TSC2 mutations were detected. We did find three silent TSC2 polymorphisms. We conclude that patients with sporadic LAM, including those with renal angiomyolipomas, do not have a high frequency of germline mutations in the coding region of TSC2. (+info)
Mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene TSC2 are a cause of sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive and often fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by a diffuse proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs. LAM is of unusual interest biologically because it affects almost exclusively young women. LAM can occur as an isolated disorder (sporadic LAM) or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex. Renal angiomyolipomas, which are found in most tuberous sclerosis patients, also occur in 60% of sporadic LAM patients. We previously found TSC2 loss of heterozygosity in 7 of 13 (54%) of angiomyolipomas from sporadic LAM patients, suggesting that LAM and TSC could have a common genetic basis. In this study, we report the identification of somatic TSC2 mutations in five of seven angiomyolipomas from sporadic LAM patients. In all four patients from whom lung tissue was available, the same mutation found in the angiomyolipoma was present in the abnormal pulmonary smooth muscle cells. In no case was the mutation present in normal kidney, morphologically normal lung, or lymphoblastoid cells. Our data demonstrate that somatic mutations in the TSC2 gene occur in the angiomyolipomas and pulmonary LAM cells of women with sporadic LAM, strongly supporting a direct role of TSC2 in the pathogenesis of this disease. (+info)
Oestrogen metabolism in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: catechol-O-methyltransferase pathway is not involved.
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an uncommon lung disease for which no effective method of treatment has been found. The predilection of LAM for premenopausal women has led to the assumption that hormonal factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine if women with LAM manifest alterations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) pathway which is essential for preventing the generation of oestrogen derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 15 women with LAM and compared with appropriate controls. The distribution of high and low activity alleles of COMT was determined with a PCR based RFLP assay. The enzymatic activity of COMT was measured in each sample and the potential presence of a circulating inhibitor of COMT was determined. Since an alteration in the COMT pathway could increase the oxidative stress, the plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a secondary product generated from lipid peroxidation, has been used as an internal marker. RESULTS: The distribution of high and low activity alleles of COMT (named COMT(HH), COMT(LL), and COMT(HL)) was similar in the two groups with proportions of 40%, 7%, and 53%, respectively, in the women with LAM and 38%, 6%, and 56% in the control subjects. The mean (SD) COMT activity was 24.2 (12.3) pmol/min/mg protein in women with LAM and 24.1 (6.3) pmol/min/mg protein in the control group. Incubation of plasma from women in the two groups with a preparation of commercial COMT showed that no detectable COMT inhibitor was present. The plasma concentration of MDA in the women with LAM was also not significantly different from control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there are no significant alterations in the COMT pathway of women with LAM. It is therefore unlikely that alterations in oestrogen mediated cell signalling pathways are mediated by oxidants derived from an excess of catecholoestrogens in LAM. (+info)
We describe a case of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) with chylothorax that developed in a 46-year-old Japanese woman. This patient exhibited clinical symptoms of dyspnea and chest X-ray showed right pleural effusion. Thoracocentesis demonstrated chylous effusion. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple cystic lesions. Subsequent thoracoscopy revealed the chylorrhea from swelled vessels on the diaphragm. The clinical diagnosis, based on histological examinations with biopsy specimens obtained by thoracoscopy, was pulmonary LAM. Although the hormone therapy was not effective, chylous effusion was improved by the pleurodesis. Pulmonary LAM developing chylothorax is rare in Japan. (+info)
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): a review of clinical and morphological features.
A review is presented of the clinical and morphological manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a systemic disorder of unknown etiology that affects women. The clinical features include dyspnea, hemoptysis, recurrent pneumothorax, chylothorax, and chylous ascites. It is characterized by: 1) proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) in pulmonary interstitium and along the axial lymphatics of the thorax and abdomen; 2) thin-walled pulmonary cysts, and 3) a high incidence of angiomyolipomas. The pulmonary cystic lesions have a characteristic appearance on high resolution computed tomography. The most specific method for diagnosing LAM is lung biopsy to demonstrate the presence of LAM cells, either by their characteristic histological appearance or by specific immunostaining with HMB-45 antibody. LAM cells differ in several important respects from the types of smooth muscle cells normally present in lung. Their reactivity with HMB-45 antibody is localized in stage I and stage II melanosomes. LAM cells show additional evidence of incomplete melanogenesis, and the significance of these observations remains to be determined. Two types of LAM cells are recognized: 1) small, spindle-shaped cells that are centrally located in the LAM nodules and are highly immunoreactive for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), its activating enzyme (MT-1-MMP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and 2) large, epithelioid cells that are distributed along the periphery of the nodules and show a high degree of immunoreactivity with HMB-45 antibody and with antibodies against estrogen and progesterone receptors. Types of treatment used for LAM include oophorectomy, administration of Lupron or progesterone and in very severe cases, pulmonary transplantation (following the onset of respiratory insufficiency, not relieved by O(2)). (+info)
Clinical experience of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in the UK.
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a rare lung disease that affects only women. No controlled trials of management have been performed and, until such data are available, management must be based on clinical experience. This study provides data on the natural history of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in the UK and compares this with experience from other centres. METHODS: We tried to identify all cases of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in the UK over a five year period by contacting all chest physicians. Cases were confirmed by lung biopsy or history and high resolution computed tomographic (CT) scanning. Details of disease and management were obtained from hospital notes. RESULTS: The 50 patients who fitted the diagnostic criteria for lymphangioleiomyomatosis had a median age at onset of 35 years (range 22-50). Five presented when postmenopausal (four taking hormone replacement therapy). Pneumothorax and dyspnoea were the most common presenting features. Extrapulmonary presentations included renal angiomyolipomas (3) and lymphangiomyomas (2). Only half the patients were assessed for renal angiomyolipoma and six were identified. Thirty patients had had one or more pneumothoraces, of which two thirds recurred if treated conservatively. Chylous effusions occurred in 11 patients, five requiring surgery. Pregnancy was uncommon once the diagnosis was made (n=7), but was associated with an increase in complications. Half the patients were taking a beta agonist and many showed a bronchodilator response in the laboratory. Thirty six patients had received hormone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our UK five year period prevalence was one per 1.1 million population. Since prophylactic interventions are sometimes indicated for renal angiomyolipoma, these data suggest that screening for angiomyolipoma, ideally by CT scanning, may be underused. Patients need to be aware of the increase in complications associated with pregnancy. Recurrence rate of pneumothorax was high in those not treated surgically. Hormone treatment was used variably and controlled trials are needed to determine their role and the optimum duration and dose. (+info)