Effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: a possible role of K(ATP) channels.
The anti-ulcer effects of nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester] were examined on water-immersion plus restraint stress-induced and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats, compared with those of cimetidine. Nicorandil (3 and 10 mg/kg) given orally to rats dose-dependently inhibited the development of acid-related damage (water-immersion- and aspirin-induced gastric lesions) in the models. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg, p.o.) also had anti-ulcer effects in the same models. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, nicorandil did not inhibit the formation of gastric lesions. Nicorandil (10 mg/kg) given intraduodenally (i.d.), like cimetidine (50 mg/kg), significantly reduced the volume of the gastric content, total acidity and total acid output in the pylorus ligation model. Glibenclamide reversed the changes caused by i.d. nicorandil. I.v. infusion of nicorandil (20 microg/kg per min) significantly increased gastric mucosal blood flow, without affecting blood pressure and heart rate, but the increase in the blood flow was not observed after i.v. treatment with glibenclamide (20 mg/kg). These results indicate that nicorandil administered orally to rats produces the anti-ulcer effect by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process in the mucosa through its K(ATP)-channel-opening property. (+info)
Core temperature and sweating onset in humans acclimated to heat given at a fixed daily time.
The thermoregulatory functions of rats acclimated to heat given daily at a fixed time are altered, especially during the period in which they were previously exposed to heat. In this study, we investigated the existence of similar phenomena in humans. Volunteers were exposed to an ambient temperature (Ta) of 46 degrees C and a relative humidity of 20% for 4 h (1400-1800) for 9-10 consecutive days. In the first experiment, the rectal temperatures (Tre) of six subjects were measured over 24 h at a Ta of 27 degrees C with and without heat acclimation. Heat acclimation significantly lowered Tre only between 1400 and 1800. In the second experiment, six subjects rested in a chair at a Ta of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40% with both legs immersed in warm water (42 degrees C) for 30 min. The Tre and sweating rates at the forearm and chest were measured. Measurements were made in the morning (0900-1100) and afternoon (1500-1700) on the same day before and after heat acclimation. Heat acclimation shortened the sweating latency and decreased the threshold Tre for sweating. However, these changes were significant only in the afternoon. The results suggest that repeated heat exposure in humans, limited to a fixed time daily, alters the core temperature level and thermoregulatory function, especially during the period in which the subjects had previously been exposed to heat. (+info)
Acute renal impairment after immersion and near-drowning.
Acute renal impairment (ARI) secondary to immersion and near-drowning is rarely described and poorly understood. A retrospective case-control study was performed: (1) to determine the incidence of ARI associated with near-drowning or immersion and (2) to define the clinical syndrome and to assess clinical predictors of ARI. Of 30 patients presenting after immersion or near-drowning, 50% were identified with ARI, with a mean admission serum creatinine of 0.24 +/- 0.33 mmol/L (2.7 +/- 3.7 mg/dl). These patients were a heterogeneous group: Eight had mild reversible ARI, three had ARI related to shock and multisystem failure, two had rhabdomyolysis-related ARI, and two had severe isolated ARI. Two patients required supportive hemodialysis and two died. Patients with ARI experienced more marked acidosis than control patients, as measured by serum bicarbonate (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001). There was also a higher admission lymphocyte count in the ARI group (P = 0.056). Dipstick hematuria on admission was significantly more common in patients with ARI (P = 0.016), and patients with 2 to 3+ of admission dipstick proteinuria had a higher peak serum creatinine than patients with less proteinuria (P < 0.05). Admission predictors of ARI by univariate logistic regression analysis included reduced serum bicarbonate (P = 0.002), pH (P = 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001). The best predictor of ARI on multivariate analysis was a negative base excess (P = 0.01). In summary, acute renal impairment commonly occurs after immersion and near-drowning and is a heterogeneous condition. Although mild reversible renal impairment (serum creatinine < 0.30 mmol/L) (3.4 mg/dl) is usual, severe acute renal failure requiring dialysis can occur. It is recommended that any patient who presents after near-drowning or immersion should be assessed for potential ARI by serial estimations of serum creatinine, particularly when there is an increase in the initial serum creatinine, marked metabolic acidosis, an abnormal urinalysis, or a significant lymphocytosis. (+info)
Influence of immersion on respiratory requirements during 30-min cycling exercise.
Immersion is considered to facilitate exercise-based rehabilitation. However, the drag effect of moving limbs in water, likely to increase the respiratory requirements at exercise, is not mentioned in many reports. The energetic and ventilatory requirements of 30 min steady state cycling exercise performed by healthy male subjects in air and during immersion up to the xiphoid in 33 degrees C water were compared. In the first experimental series nine subjects exercised at the same 60% maximal oxygen consumption (V'O2,max) in air and water. In the two ambient conditions, ventilatory variables had similar values, but the ergometric setting had to be reduced during water immersion so that the workload rated only 69+/-20 W (mean+/-SD) in water versus 121+/-32 W (p<0.001) in air. In the second experimental series, the same ergometric work load (122 W) was achieved by nine subjects with an average V'O2 of 2,210+/-300 mL x min(-1) in air versus 2,868+/-268 mL x min(-1) in water (p<0.001). Resting water immersion caused a marked trend for decreasing vital capacity (p=0.06), but no modification of other ventilatory variables. During exercise at similar V'O2, the average values of minute ventilation (V'E), tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (fR), tidal inspiratory time (VT/tI) were not different between water and air. However, at similar ergometric workload, V'E, VT, fR, VT/tI and plasma lactate levels were significantly higher in water than in air. Such consequences of the drag effect of water upon limb movements have not been reported in previous studies relying on shorter exercise bouts. Thus, maintaining steady exercise levels in water either led to a decrease in the workload or required a 25% higher oxygen consumption than in air. These findings may be relevant to the prescription of water immersion rehabilitation programmes. (+info)
Maximal physiological responses to deep water running at thermoneutral temperature.
This study investigated the metabolic demands of deep water running (DWR) compared with those of treadmill running (TMR) while the water and ambient temperatures were kept under thermoneutral condition. Two maximal tests, one on treadmill and the other running in deep water using the Wet Vest (Lincoln life jacket) were undertaken by twenty healthy non-smoker males (Age = 28.0 +/- 9.2 years). The order of trials was counterbalanced with half of the subjects completing the treadmill first and the rest completing the water running first. Oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation, heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RQ), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were measured. VO2max (2.68 vs 3.40 ml/kg/min), HRmax (171.5 vs 190.8 beats/min), maximal minute ventilation (98.5 vs 113.31/min), and peak blood lactate value (10.44 vs 12.47 mmol/l) in response to DWR were significantly lower than those of TMR in the thermoneutral conditions. The lower VO2max and HRmax values of DWR compared to those of TMR are shown to be attributed to the hydrostatic effects caused by water and different muscle recruitment patterns between DWR and TMR. (+info)
Thermoregulatory responses to cold water at different times of day.
This study examined how time of day affects thermoregulation during cold-water immersion (CWI). It was hypothesized that the shivering and vasoconstrictor responses to CWI would differ at 0700 vs. 1500 because of lower initial core temperatures (T(core)) at 0700. Nine men were immersed (20 degrees C, 2 h) at 0700 and 1500 on 2 days. No differences (P > 0.05) between times were observed for metabolic heat production (M, 150 W. m(-2)), heat flow (250 W. m(-2)), mean skin temperature (T(sk), 21 degrees C), and the mean body temperature-change in M (DeltaM) relationship. Rectal temperature (T(re)) was higher (P < 0.05) before (Delta = 0.4 degrees C) and throughout CWI during 1500. The change in T(re) was greater (P < 0. 05) at 1500 (-1.4 degrees C) vs. 0700 (-1.2 degrees C), likely because of the higher T(re)-T(sk) gradient (0.3 degrees C) at 1500. These data indicate that shivering and vasoconstriction are not affected by time of day. These observations raise the possibility that CWI may increase the risk of hypothermia in the early morning because of a lower initial T(core). (+info)
Thermoregulation during cold exposure: effects of prior exercise.
This study examined whether acute exercise would impair the body's capability to maintain thermal balance during a subsequent cold exposure. Ten men rested for 2 h during a standardized cold-air test (4.6 degrees C) after two treatments: 1) 60 min of cycle exercise (Ex) at 55% peak O(2) uptake and 2) passive heating (Heat). Ex was performed during a 35 degrees C water immersion (WI), and Heat was conducted during a 38.2 degrees C WI. The duration of Heat was individually adjusted (mean = 53 min) so that rectal temperature was similar at the end of WI in both Ex (38.2 degrees C) and Heat (38.1 degrees C). During the cold-air test after Ex, relative to Heat 1) rectal temperature was lower (P < 0.05) from minutes 40-120, 2) mean weighted heat flow was higher (P < 0.05), 3) insulation was lower (P < 0.05), and 4) metabolic heat production was not different. These results suggest that prior physical exercise may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold air. The combination of exercise intensity and duration studied in these experiments did not fatigue the shivering response to cold exposure. (+info)
Evaluating physiological strain during cold exposure using a new cold strain index.
A cold strain index (CSI) based on core (T(core)) and mean skin temperatures (T(sk)) and capable of indicating cold strain in real time and analyzing existing databases has been developed. This index rates cold strain on a universal scale of 0-10 and is as follows: CSI = 6.67(T(core t) - T(core 0)). (35 - T(core 0))(-1) + 3.33(T(sk (t)) - T(sk 0)). (20 - T(sk 0))(-1), where T(core 0) and T(sk 0) are initial measurements and T(core t) and T(sk t) are simultaneous measurements taken at any time t; when T(core t) > T(core 0), then T(core t) - T(core 0) = 0. CSI was applied to three databases. The first database was obtained from nine men exposed to cold air (7 degrees C, 40% relative humidity) for 120 min during euhydration and two hypohydration conditions achieved by exercise-heat stress-induced sweating or by ingestion of furosemide 12 h before cold exposure. The second database was from eight men exposed to cold air (10 degrees C) immediately on completion of 61 days of strenuous outdoor military training, 48 h later, and after 109 days. The third database was from eight men repeatedly immersed in 20 degrees C water three times in 1 day and during control immersions. CSI significantly differentiated (P < 0.01) between the trials and individually categorized the strain of the subject for two of these three databases. This index has the potential to be widely accepted and used universally. (+info)