The excretion of ibuprofen by the horse - a preliminary report.
The anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen [(+/-)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid] was estimated in the blood and urine of a horse using gas-liquid chromatography of the silylated derivative. Levels of the drug in the two body fluids were measured over a period of about 24 hours after administering a 12 gm dose of Ibuprofen. Plasma peak levels were observed within 30 to 60 min, and the drug was no longer detectable in the plasma by 8 hr. Urinary peak levels were observed 200 to 300 min after dosing, and the drug was no longer detectable in the urine by about 28 hr. It was observed that only 2% to 6% of the free unchanged drug was excreted in the urine. (+info)
A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss.
The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted. (+info)
Effects of dexamethasone, ibuprofen, and ligustrazini on lipopolysaccharides-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production.
AIM: To study the influence of dexamethasone (Dex), ibuprofen (Ibu), and ligustrazini (Lig) on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) gene expression (both mRNA and protein). METHODS: TNF alpha in supernatants of human whole blood was measured by ELISA; The TNF alpha mRNA was assessed by slot blot analysis. RESULTS: LPS-induced TNF alpha production was in a dose-dependent manner. TNF alpha levels in the whole blood increased markedly at 3 h and peaked at 6 h. The induction of TNF alpha mRNA was very rapid, peaking at 2 h after LPS challenge. Dex exerted inhibitory effects on TNF alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Ibu and Lig had 2-phase effects on TNF alpha release. CONCLUSION: Dex, Ibu, and Lig affected TNF alpha gene expression, so they may be new approaches of anti-TNF alpha for treatment of sepsis. (+info)
Effects of dexamethasone and ibuprofen on LPS-induced gene expression of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung.
AIM: To study the kinetics of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukine-1 (IL-1 beta), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) gene expression in rat lung after i.p. lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the effect of dexamethasone (Dex) and ibuprofen (Ibu) on the cytokines gene expression. METHODS: The amount of Evans blue in lung was measured by fluorescence method. The mRNA levels of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung were assessed by slot blot analysis. RESULTS: The mRNA levels of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung after i.p. LPS increased in a dose-dependent manner, and peaked at 2, 6, and 12 h, respectively. Both Dex 50 mg.kg-1 and Ibu 90 mg.kg-1 injected at 1 h before i.p. LPS markedly decreased the content of Evans blue in lung at 1 h after i.p. LPS. After Dex or Ibu pretreatment, the peak levels of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha mRNA decreased markedly compared with LPS alone. CONCLUSION: The gene expression of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung increased after i.p. LPS. Dex and Ibu prevented LPS-induced lung injury through inhibiting the cytokines gene expression. (+info)
Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human articular cartilage.
The anti-inflammatory drugs, sodium salicylate, indomethacin, hydrocortisone, ibuprofen, and flurbiprofen, were examined for their effects on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human cartilage in vitro. Cartilage was obtained from femoral heads removed during surgery and drug effects were found to vary significantly from one head to another. Statistical analysis of the results showed that sodium salicylate exhibits concentration-dependent inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used. Indomethacin, hydrocortisone, and ibuprofen, at concentrations comparable to those attained in man, caused a statistically significant depression of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cartilage from some femoral heads but not others, reflecting the variable response of human articular cartilage to anti-inflammatory drugs. Sodium salicylate and indomethacin at higher doses produced significant (Pless than 0-005) inhibition of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in all femoral heads studied. The results for flurbiprofen were less conclusive; this compound appears not to inhibit glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used. (+info)
Postoperative analgesia and vomiting, with special reference to day-case surgery: a systematic review.
BACKGROUND: Day-case surgery is of great value to patients and the health service. It enables many more patients to be treated properly, and faster than before. Newer, less invasive, operative techniques will allow many more procedures to be carried out. There are many elements to successful day-case surgery. Two key components are the effectiveness of the control of pain after the operation, and the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To enable those caring for patients undergoing day-case surgery to make the best choices for their patients and the health service, this review sought the highest quality evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of the control of pain after an operation; (2) the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Full details of the search strategy are presented in the report. RESULTS - ANALGESIA: The systematic reviews of the literature explored whether different interventions work and, if they do work, how well they work. A number of conclusions can be drawn. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INEFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS: There is good evidence that some interventions are ineffective. They include: (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain; (2) the use of local injections of opioids at sites other than the knee joint; (3) the use of dihydrocodeine, 30 mg, in acute postoperative pain (it is no better than placebo). RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF DOUBTFUL VALUE: Some interventions may be effective but the size of the effect or the complication of undertaking them confers no measurable benefit over conventional methods. Such interventions include: (1) injecting morphine into the knee joint after surgery: there is a small analgesic benefit which may last for up to 24 hours but there is no clear evidence that the size of the benefit is of any clinical value; (2) manoeuvres to try and anticipate pain by using pre-emptive analgesia; these are no more effective than standard methods; (3) administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by injection or per rectum in patients who can swallow; this appears to be no more effective than giving NSAIDs by mouth and, indeed, may do more harm than good; (4) administering codeine in single doses; this has poor analgesic efficacy. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF PROVEN VALUE: These include a number of oral analgesics including (at standard doses): (1) dextropropoxyphene; (2) tramadol; (3) paracetamol; (4) ibuprofen; (5) diclofenac. Diclofenac and ibuprofen at standard doses give analgesia equivalent to that obtained with 10 mg of intramuscular morphine. Each will provide at least 50% pain relief from a single oral dose in patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Paracetamol and codeine combinations also appear to be highly effective, although there is little information on the standard doses used in the UK. The relative effectiveness of these analgesics is compared in an effectiveness 'ladder' which can inform prescribers making choices for individual patients, or planning day-case surgery. Dose-response relationships show that higher doses of ibuprofen may be particularly effective. Topical NSAIDs (applied to the skin) are effective in minor injuries and chronic pain but there is no obvious role for them in day-case surgery. RESULTS-POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: The proportion of patients who may feel nauseated or vomit after surgery is very variable, despite similar operations and anaesthetic techniques. Systematic review can still lead to clear estimations of effectiveness of interventions. Whichever anti-emetic is used, the choice is often between prophylactic use (trying to prevent anyone vomiting) and treating those people who do feel nauseated or who may vomit. Systematic reviews of a number of different anti-emetics show clearly that none of the anti-emetics is sufficiently effective to be used for prophylaxis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE (+info)
Kinetic basis for selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the formation of prostaglandins by cyclo-oxygenases (COX). The discovery of a second COX isoform (COX-2) associated with inflammation led to agents that selectively inhibit COX-2, e.g. celecoxib. We evaluated the kinetics of inhibition of celecoxib and several NSAIDs. Celecoxib displays classic competitive kinetics on COX-1 (Ki=10-16 microM). An initial competitive interaction with COX-2 can also be discerned with celecoxib (Ki=11-15 microM), followed by a time-dependent interaction leading to potent inhibition, characterized as inactivation (Kinact=0.03-0.5 s-1). Half-maximal inhibition (IC50) using end-point assays reflects the competitive component on COX-1 (IC50=4-19 microM) and the inactivation component on COX-2 (IC50=0.003-0.006 microM). NSAIDs exhibit four distinct modes of COX inhibition based on kinetic behaviour: (1) competitive, e.g. ibuprofen; (2) weak binding, time-dependent, e.g. naproxen, oxicams; (3) tight binding, time-dependent, e.g. indomethacin; (4) covalent, e.g. aspirin. In addition, most NSAIDs display different kinetic behaviour for each isoform. Weakly binding inhibitors show variable behaviour in enzyme assays, with apparent inhibitory activity being markedly influenced by experimental conditions; determination of kinetic constants with this class is unreliable and IC50 values are strongly dependent on assay conditions. Although IC50 determinations are useful for structure/activity analyses, the complex and distinct mechanisms of enzyme inhibition of each COX isoform by the NSAIDs renders comparison of inhibitory activity on COX-1 and COX-2 using IC50 ratios of questionable validity. (+info)
In vitro prostanoid release from spinal cord following peripheral inflammation: effects of substance P, NMDA and capsaicin.
1. Spinal prostanoids are implicated in the development of thermal hyperalgesia after peripheral injury, but the specific prostanoid species that are involved are presently unknown. The current study used an in vitro spinal superfusion model to investigate the effect of substance P (SP), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and capsaicin on multiple prostanoid release from dorsal spinal cord of naive rats as well as rats that underwent peripheral injury and inflammation (knee joint kaolin/carrageenan). 2. In naive rat spinal cords, PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, but not TxB2, levels were increased after inclusion of SP, NMDA, or capsaicin in the perfusion medium. 3. Basal PGE2 levels from spinal cords of animals that underwent 5-72 h of peripheral inflammation were elevated relative to age-matched naive cohorts. The time course of this increase in basal PGE2 levels coincided with peripheral inflammation, as assessed by knee joint circumference. Basal 6-keto-PGF1alpha levels were not elevated after injury. 4. From this inflammation-evoked increase in basal PGE2 levels, SP and capsaicin significantly increased spinal PGE2 release in a dose-dependent fashion. Capsaicin-evoked increases were blocked dose-dependently by inclusion of S(+) ibuprofen in the capsaicin-containing perfusate. 5. These data suggest a role for spinal PGE2 and NK-1 receptor activation in the development of hyperalgesia after injury and demonstrate that this relationship is upregulated in response to peripheral tissue injury and inflammation. (+info)