Age-related bone loss: relationship between age and regional bone mineral density.
We assessed the changes in regional bone mineral density according to age and examined the relationship between various regional bone mineral densities. The study was conducted in 985 Japanese women divided into < 50-years group (n = 435) and > or = 50 years group (n = 550). The total body bone mineral density and that of the head, arm, leg, thoracic (T)-spine, lumbar (L)-spine, ribs, and pelvis were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. There was a significant generalized reduction of bone mineral density in all regions after the age of 50 years. The most marked age-related decrease was observed in the L-spine. Bone mineral densities in all regions significantly correlated to each other in both age groups, but the degree of significance varied among regions. The relationship between bone mineral density of the L-spine and that of T-spine regions was the most significant in both groups. In the < 50-years group, the correlation between bone mineral density of the pelvis and that of L-spine and T-spine was the highest, followed by that between the pelvis and the leg. On the other hand, in the > or = 50-years group, the correlation between bone mineral density of the pelvis and that of the leg was the highest, but not the L-spine or T-spine. Since spine measurements are affected by vertebral deformity and/or aortic calcification, our findings suggest the pelvis may be a useful region for screening measurements of bone mineral density, especially in older women. (+info)
Management of cancer in pregnancy: a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis in the third trimester.
Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvic bones was diagnosed in a 21-year childbearing woman, raising major medical and ethical problems. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches during the sixth month of gestation were tailored in order to cure the patient and avoid unnecessary toxicity to the fetus. Ancillary tests included ultrasound and MRI studies of the pelvis. Ifosfamide and adriamycin, premedicated by granisetron, were administered during gestation, and were found to be safe. Cesarean section was the preferred way of delivery since the tumor involved the pelvic bones. The outcome was a disease-free patient and a small healthy baby who is now two years of age. (+info)
Effect of a lifestyle intervention on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized trial.
BACKGROUND: The positive association between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD) is well documented; in contrast, the effect of changes in body weight on BMD is not well understood, particularly, in normal-weight populations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of a lifestyle intervention aimed at lowering dietary fat intake and increasing physical activity to produce modest weight loss or prevent weight gain on BMD in a population of 236 healthy, premenopausal women aged 44-50 y. DESIGN: All women were participating in a clinical trial known as The Women's Healthy Lifestyle Project and were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of BMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were made before and after 18 mo of participation in the trial. RESULTS: The intervention group (n = 115) experienced a mean (+/-SD) weight loss of 3.2 +/- 4.7 kg over the 18 mo compared with a weight gain of 0.42 +/- 3.6 kg in the control group (n = 121) (P < 0.001). The annualized rate of hip BMD loss was 2-fold higher (P < 0.015) in the intervention group (0.81 +/- 1.3%) than in the control group (0.42 +/- 1.1%); a similar, although nonsignificant pattern was observed for the loss in spine BMD: 0.70 +/- 1.4% and 0.37 +/- 1.5% (P = 0.093) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Large increases in physical activity attenuated spine BMD loss, but had no significant effect on BMD loss at the hip. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention group, who modified their lifestyle to lose weight, had a higher rate of BMD loss at the hip and lumbar spine than did the weight-stable control group. Recommendations for weight loss must be made with consideration that such an endorsement may result in BMD loss. (+info)
The 'MW' sacropelvic construct: an enhanced fixation of the lumbosacral junction in neuromuscular pelvic obliquity.
Fixation to the lumbosacral spine to correct pelvic obliquity in neuromuscular scoliosis has always remained a surgical challenge. The strongest fixation of the lumbosacral junction has been achieved with either a Galveston technique with rods or screws or with iliosacral screws. We have devised a new fixation system, in which iliosacral screws are combined with iliac screws. This is made possible by using the AO Universal Spine System with side opening hooks above and below the iliosacral screws and iliac screws below it. The whole sacropelvis is thus encompassed by a maximum width (MW) fixation, which gives an 'M' appearance on the pelvic radiographs and a 'W' appearance in the axial plane. We report on our surgical technique and the early results where such a technique was used. We feel that this new means of fixation (by combining the strongest fixation systems) is extremely solid and should be included in the wide armamentarium of sacropelvic fixation. (+info)
Failure of reduction with an external fixator in the management of injuries of the pelvic ring. Long-term evaluation of 110 patients.
We reviewed 110 patients with an unstable fracture of the pelvic ring who had been treated with a trapezoidal external fixator after a mean follow-up of 4.1 years. There were eight open-book (type B1, B3-1) injuries, 62 lateral compression (type B2, B3-2) and 40 rotationally and vertically unstable (type C1-C3) injuries. The rate of complications was high with loss of reduction in 57%, malunion in 58%, nonunion in 5%, infection at the pin site in 24%, loosening of the pins in 2%, injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in 2%, and pressure sores in 3%. The external fixator failed to give and maintain a proper reduction in six of the eight open-book injuries, in 20 of the 62 lateral compression injuries, and in 38 of the 40 type-C injuries. Poor functional results were usually associated with failure of reduction and an unsatisfactory radiological appearance. In type-C injuries more than 10 mm of residual vertical displacement of the injury to the posterior pelvic ring was significantly related to poor outcome. In 14 patients in this unsatisfactory group poor functional results were also affected by associated nerve injuries. In lateral compression injuries the degree of displacement of fractures of the pubic rami caused by internal rotation of the hemipelvis was an important prognostic factor. External fixation may be useful in the acute phase of resuscitation but it is of limited value in the definitive treatment of an unstable type-C injury and in type-B open-book injuries. It is usually unnecessary in minimally displaced lateral compression injuries. (+info)
Fracture risk is increased in Crohn's disease, but not in ulcerative colitis.
AIMS: To study fracture rates and risk factors for fractures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: 998 self administered questionnaires were issued to members of the Danish Colitis/Crohn Association, and 1000 questionnaires were issued to randomly selected control subjects. 845 patients (84.5%) and 645 controls (65.4%) returned the questionnaire (p<0.01). 817 patients and 635 controls could be analysed. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 383 patients with Crohn's disease (median age 39, range 8-82 years; median age at diagnosis 26, range 1-75 years), 434 patients with ulcerative colitis (median age 39, range 11-86 years; median age at diagnosis 29, range 10-78 years), and 635 controls (median age 43, range 19-93 years, p<0.01). The fracture risk was increased in female patients with Crohn's disease (relative risk (RR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.6), but not in male patients with Crohn's disease (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.3) or in patients with ulcerative colitis (RR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6). An increased proportion of low energy fractures was observed in patients with Crohn's disease (15.7% versus 1.4 % in controls, 2p<0. 01), but not in patients with ulcerative colitis (5.4%, 2p=0.30). The increased fracture frequency in Crohn's disease was present for fractures of the spine, feet, and toes and fractures of the ribs and pelvis. Fracture risk increased with increasing duration of systemic corticosteroid use in Crohn's disease (2p=0.028), but not in ulcerative colitis (2p=0.50). CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of low energy fractures was observed in female patients with Crohn's disease, but not in male patients with Crohn's disease or in patients with ulcerative colitis. (+info)
Stepping before standing: hip muscle function in stepping and standing balance after stroke.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of pelvic girdle muscle activation in normal subjects and hemiparetic patients while stepping and maintaining standing balance. DESIGN: Group comparison. METHOD: Seventeen patients who had regained the ability to walk after a single hemiparetic stroke were studied together with 16 normal controls. Median interval between stroke and testing was 17 months. Amplitude and onset latency of surface EMG activity in hip abductors and adductors were recorded in response to sideways pushes in either direction while standing. Similar recordings were made in the same subjects during gait initiation and a single stride. RESULTS: In the standing balance task, normal subjects resisted a sideways push to the left with the left gluteus medius (74 ms) and with the right adductor (111 ms), and vice versa. In hemiparetic patients, the amplitude of activity was reduced in the hemiparetic muscles, the onset latencies of which were delayed (gluteus medius 96 ms, adductor 144 ms). Contralateral, non-paretic, adductor activity was increased after a push towards the hemiparetic side of patients with stroke and the latency was normal (110 ms). During self initiated sideways weight shifts at gait initiation, hemiplegic muscle activation was impaired. By contrast, the pattern and peak amplitude of hip muscle activation in stepping was normal in both hemiparetic and non-hemiparetic muscles of the subjects with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In ambulant patients with stroke, a normal pattern of activation of hemiparetic muscles is seen in stepping whereas the response of these muscles to a perturbation while standing remains grossly impaired and is compensated by increased activity of the contralateral muscles. This suggests that hemiparetic patients should be able to step before regaining standing balance. (+info)
Surgical treatment of old pelvic fractures.
We report on 4 patients, aged 24-51 years, with untreated pelvic ring fractures. The chief complaints were gait disturbances and pain in the buttocks and lower limb. The period between the initial injury and the surgical treatment ranged from 2.5 months to 3 years. Palsy was not improved, but pain and gait ability was improved in all patients. (+info)