General practitioners' views of working with team midwifery.
This report presents the results of a survey of general practitioners (GPs) working alongside a midwifery team in south-east England. Sixty-nine per cent of the GPs thought team midwifery was a good idea in theory. However, just 37% thought it was working well locally and 56% reported that they would like to go back to working in the way they did before. Of greatest concern was the decline in interprofessional communications and the loss of continuity for patients. Therefore, team midwifery, as implemented in this locality, may not attain the goals aimed at by the organisation of care in this way. (+info)
Hospital restructuring and the work of registered nurses.
American hospitals have undergone three waves of organizational restructuring in the past two decades. These changes have had direct effects on a key set of employees--nurses. A review of the relevant literature to identify the ways in which hospital restructuring affects the work of registered nurses focuses on three important structural characteristics of nursing work: nurses' work roles, workload, and control of work. The review concludes that the impact of restructuring on each of the characteristics affects nurses' satisfaction with their work and may also affect the quality of patient care. While much of the policy debate around restructuring focuses on the extent to which reductions in nurse staffing levels affects quality of care, it is important to examine not only changes in nurse staffing levels, but changes in the work performed by registered nurses, as well. (+info)
Hospital registered nurse shortages: environmental, patient, and institutional predictors.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of acute-care hospitals that report registered nurse shortages when a widespread shortage exists and when a widespread shortage is no longer evident. DATA SOURCE: Secondary data from the American Hospital Association's Nursing Personnel Survey from 1990 and 1992 were used. The study population was all acute-care hospitals in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Outcome variables included whether a hospital experienced a shortage in 1990, when many hospitals reported a nursing shortage, or whether a hospital reported a shortage in both 1990 and 1992. Predictor variables included environmental, patient, and institutional characteristics. Associations between predictor and outcome variables were investigated using probit analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Location in the South, a high percentage of nonwhite county residents, a high percentage of patients with Medicaid or Medicare as payer, a higher patient acuity, and use of team or functional nursing care delivery consistently predicted hospitals reporting shortages both when there was a widespread shortage and when there was no widespread shortage. CONCLUSIONS: Although some characteristics under the direct control of hospitals, such as nursing care delivery model, are associated with their reporting a shortage of nurses, shortage is also strongly associated with broader population characteristics such as minority communities and a public insurance payer mix. Awareness of these broader factors may help inform policies to improve the distribution of nurse supply. (+info)
A randomized comparison of care provided by a clinical nurse specialist, an inpatient team, and a day patient team in rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVES: To compare in a randomized, controlled trial the clinical effectiveness of care delivered by a clinical nurse specialist, inpatient team care, and day patient team care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have increasing functional limitations. METHODS: Between December 1996 and January 1999, 210 patients with RA were recruited in the outpatient clinic of the rheumatology department of 6 academic and nonacademic hospitals. Clinical assessments recorded on study entry and weeks 6, 12, 26, and 52 included the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the McMaster Toronto Arthritis Patient Preference Disability Questionnaire as primary outcome measures, and the RAND-36 Item Health Survey, the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire, the Health Utility Rating Scale, and the Disease Activity Score as secondary outcome measures. Patient satisfaction with care was measured on a visual analog scale in week 6 in all 3 groups and again in week 12 in the nurse specialist group. RESULTS: Within all 3 groups, functional status, quality of life, health utility, and disease activity improved significantly over time (P < 0.05). However, a comparison of clinical outcome among the 3 groups and a comparison between the nurse specialist group and the inpatient and day patient care groups together did not show any sustained significant differences. Subgroup analysis showed that age had a significant impact on differences between the 3 treatment groups with respect to functional outcome as measured with the HAQ (P < 0.001). With increasing age, the most favorable outcome shifted from care provided by a clinical nurse specialist and inpatient care to day patient care. Patients' satisfaction with care was significantly lower in the nurse specialist group than in the inpatient and day patient care groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Care provided by a clinical nurse specialist appears to have a similar clinical outcome in comparison with inpatient and day patient team care. Although all patients were highly satisfied with multidisciplinary care, patients who received care provided by a clinical nurse specialist were slightly less satisfied than those who received inpatient or day patient team care. Age appeared to be the only factor related to differences in functional outcome between the 3 treatment groups. The choice of management strategy may, apart from age, further be dependent on the availability of facilities, the preferences of patients and health care providers, and economic considerations. (+info)
Perceptions about medication errors: analysis of answers by the nursing team.
Medication error is defined as any type of error in the prescription, transcription, dispensing and administration process which could bring about serious consequences or not. This descriptive and exploratory study assesses four scenarios showing situations from nursing practice. The study group was composed of 256 professionals and 89 questionnaires were analyzed. The answers given by the registered nurses were compared with those of licensed practical nurses and care aids. They should express their opinion if the situations represented a medication error or not, if it had to be communicated to the physician or an incident report had to be written. The two groups showed uniform answers. They expressed the same doubts to label the situation as an error and which measures should be taken, suggesting the need for further discussion on the matter within the institution. (+info)
The hemodynamic "target": a visual tool of goal-directed therapy for septic patients.
OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of the hemodynamic status of patients with sepsis by nursing teams through the attainment of hemodynamic parameters using a pentaxial "target" diagram as a clinical tool. Parameters include cardiac index (CI), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial blood lactate, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). METHODS: DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: The intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: During a 6-month period, 38 intubated septic shock patients were included in the study. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared. INTERVENTIONS: MAP, CI, SaO2, ScvO2 and lactate were measured at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Measurements were recorded on the target diagram along with the norepinephrine infusion rate and the hemoglobin (Hb) level. The number of lactate and ScvO2 measurements achieved during the target period were compared to a 6-month retrospective control period just before starting the protocol. We assessed the nurse knowledge status prior to the introduction of target diagram. We then performed a post-test after implementing the new recording technique. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The nursing team expressed a positive attitude toward the target concept. The mean number of lactate and ScvO2 measurements performed for each patient during the control period was significantly lower than during the target period, and those values were rarely used as goal values before the introduction of the target diagram. At 24 hours, 46% of the survivors had achieved all the goal parameter values of the target diagram, compared to only 10% of nonsurvivors (P = .01). CONCLUSION: The target diagram is a visual multiparametric tool involving all the medical and nursing team that helps achieve goal-directed therapy for septic patients. The number of goal values reached at each time point during the first 48 hours was closely linked to mortality. (+info)
Successful introduction of an intravenous line insertion team at a municipal hospital.
An intravenous line insertion and blood drawing team was introduced as a pilot project in a large municipal hospital in the New York City. The program successfully accomplished the goals of reducing house staff workload, improving house staff morale and patient care, and increasing available time for house staff education. (+info)
Cohort study to evaluate nursing team performance in a theoretical test after training in cardiopulmonary arrest.