Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.
The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated. (+info)
Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer is a commonly fatal disease for which prevention strategies have been limited, in part because of a lack of understanding of the underlying biology. This paper reviews the epidemiologic literature in the English language on risk factors and protective factors for ovarian cancer and proposes a novel hypothesis that a common mechanism underlying this disease is inflammation. Previous hypotheses about the causes of ovarian cancer have attributed risk to an excess number of lifetime ovulations or to elevations in steroid hormones. Inflammation may underlie ovulatory events because an inflammatory reaction is induced during the process of ovulation. Additional risk factors for ovarian cancer, including asbestos and talc exposure, endometriosis (i.e., ectopic implantation of uterine lining tissue), and pelvic inflammatory disease, cannot be directly linked to ovulation or to hormones but do cause local pelvic inflammation. On the other hand, tubal ligation and hysterectomy act as protective factors, perhaps by diminishing the likelihood that the ovarian epithelium will be exposed to environmental initiators of inflammation. Inflammation entails cell damage, oxidative stress, and elevations of cytokines and prostaglandins, all of which may be mutagenic. The possibility that inflammation is a pathophysiologic contributor to the development of ovarian cancer suggests a directed approach to future research (+info)
Combined field block and i.p. instillation of ropivacaine for pain management after laparoscopic sterilization.
We have studied the effect of ropivacaine for combined port site and mesosalpinx infiltration, and peritoneal instillation on pain, nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic sterilization, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients. The total dose of ropivacaine was 285 mg. All patients received intra- and postoperative NSAID in fixed doses. Abdominal and shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting were recorded during the first 8 h after operation and in a diary for 3 days. In the ropivacaine group, abdominal pain scores were lower during the first 4 h (P < 0.00001), additional use of morphine was less (P < 0.001) and fewer patients had nausea or vomiting during the first 72 h (five vs 14; P < 0.05). There were no signs of local anaesthetic toxicity. (+info)
Reproductive outcome after sterilization reversal in women of advanced reproductive age.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the clinical outcome of tubal reversal in women of advanced reproductive age. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective chart review of 153 patients who underwent a tubal ligation reversal was carried out. Patients were evaluated according to age. All patients had documented ovulation and a partner with a normal semen analysis by WHO criteria. Outcome measures included rates of clinical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and live birth, and the time to conception. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in women > or = 40 compared to younger groups. The time to conception was significantly shorter for women < 30 compared to women > or = 35. No pregnancies occurred in women > or = 42. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the judicious use of sterilization reversal for infertile women with no male factor through their early forties. Women > or = 42 years should be especially counseled as to the very low success rates. (+info)
Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.
It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case-control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours. (+info)
Effect of cholecystectomy on bowel function: a prospective, controlled study.
BACKGROUND: Published estimates of the prevalence of postcholecystectomy diarrhoea derive from retrospective or uncontrolled data. They ignore functional bowel syndromes and possible changes in diet and drug use. AIMS: To determine prospectively whether and how often cholecystectomy leads to changes in bowel function and bowel symptoms, especially to liquid stools, over and above any non-specific effect of laparoscopic surgery. SUBJECTS: PATIENTS: 106 adults undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (85 women, 21 men). CONTROLS: 37 women undergoing laparoscopic sterilisation. METHODS: Before and 2-6 months after surgery patients were administered questionnaires about bowel frequency, bowel symptoms, diet, and drugs, and kept records of five consecutive defecations with assessment of stool form or appearance on a seven point scale. RESULTS: In cholecystectomised women, stated bowel frequency increased, on average by one movement a week, and fewer subjects felt that they became constipated. However, records showed no consistent change in bowel frequency, stool form, or defecatory symptoms. Six women reported diarrhoea after the operation but in only one was it clearly new and in her it was mild. Change in dietary fibre intake did not associate with change in bowel function but stopping constipating drugs did in a minority. In women being sterilised there was no consistent change in bowel function. In men having cholecystectomy no consistent changes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In women, cholecystectomy leads to the perception of less constipation and slightly more frequent defecations but short term recordings show no consistent change in bowel function. Clinical diarrhoea develops rarely and is not severe. (+info)
Hospital admission after day-case gynaecological laparoscopy.
We have examined aspects of the anaesthetic technique that may influence the likelihood of unplanned overnight hospital admission after ambulatory gynaecological laparoscopy and have determined if any anaesthetically controllable factors were involved. The retrospective audit involved 300 patients. All patients attended the day-case unit at the Liverpool Women's Hospital between September 1996 and May 1997. One hundred ASA I-II patients who had unplanned overnight admissions during this time were evaluated. For every admitted patient, two similar patients who did not require admission were studied. Variables such as patient age and anaesthetic technique were evaluated by logistic regression. Our results indicated that postoperative emesis was the commonest cause for admission. Significant factors increasing the likelihood of unplanned admission included returning from the recovery unit after 15:00, use of a laryngeal mask airway and undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy. Significant factors reducing the likelihood of admission were the use of fentanyl and rectally administered diclofenac. (+info)
Tubal ligation and risk of breast cancer.
Although it has been demonstrated in previous studies that tubal ligation can have widespread effects on ovarian function, including a decrease in the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer, few studies have evaluated effects on breast cancer risk. In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women 20-54 years of age conducted in three geographic areas, previous tubal ligations were reported by 25.3% of the 2173 cases and 25.8% of the 1990 controls. Initially it appeared that tubal ligations might impart a slight reduction in risk, particularly among women undergoing the procedure at young ages (<25 years). However, women were more likely to have had the procedure if they were black, less educated, young when they bore their first child, or multiparous. After accounting for these factors, tubal ligations were unrelated to breast cancer risk (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-1.3), with no variation in risk by age at, interval since, or calendar year of the procedure. The relationship of tubal ligations to risk did not vary according to the presence of a number of other risk factors, including menopausal status or screening history. Furthermore, effects of tubal ligation were similar for all stages at breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies would be worthwhile given the biologic plausibility of an association. However, future investigations should include information on type of procedure performed (since this may relate to biologic effects) as well as other breast cancer risk factors. (+info)