The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. (+info)
Contamination of fluids from a hospital pharmacy.
An investigation into the cause of bacterial contamination of bottles of noninjectable water has been reported. A method of monitoring such bottles has also been described. The roles played by autoclave spray-cooling water and inadequate bottle seals in the contamination of fluids have been examined. Possible methods of reducing the risk of contamination are discussed and the design of an improved method of closure of sterile bottled fluids is stressed. Bacteriological examination is shown to be a more accurate index of the true rate of contamination than measurement of dye concentrations of bottle contents. (+info)
Administration of antirheumatic drugs.
A study of 200 rheumatic patients attending an outpatient clinic and 72 general practitioners (GPs) was undertaken in relation to the administration of antirheumatic drugs. (1) Both patients and GPs agreed that effectiveness, absence of toxicity, and once daily administration were the important features of administration. (2) Significant differences between GPs and patients were noted in that patients more frequently preferred capsules than tablets. (3) GPs thought red was the best colour for an antirheumatic tablet, whereas patients thought white, this opinion being partly determined by the possible confusion of red tablets with sweets by children. (4) In a survey of 174 outpatients with rheumatic diseases, those with rheumatoid arthritis did not like blister packaging. A detailed assessment of 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis in hospital confirmed this. Patients with moderate or severe rheumatoid disease of the hands often could not extract tablets from blister packs. Those who could found the packs difficult to open, the tablets broke, and came out suddenly, falling to the floor. (+info)
Can medication packaging improve glycemic control and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes? Results from a randomized controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of calendar blister pack (CBP) use on glycemic and blood pressure control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an 8-month randomized controlled double-blind study among diabetic patients with poor glucose control (HbA1c >9.0%) in an urban area of South Auckland, New Zealand, with a high proportion of Maori and Pacific Islands people. Subjects included 68 consecutive patients, of whom 50% were prescribed three or more medications per day RESULTS: HbA1c was reduced by 0.95+/-0.22% in the CBP group and 0.15+/-0.25% in the control group (P = 0.026). Diastolic blood pressure decreased 5.8+/-1.5 mm Hg in the CBP group and increased 0.1+/-1.9 mm Hg in the control group (P = 0.0041). Systolic blood pressure did not change significantly CONCLUSIONS: CBPs should be considered among diabetic patients with poor glycemic control receiving multiple medications. (+info)
An "in-production" method for testing the sterility of infusion fluids.
The addition of dehydrated broth powder to a random selection of bottles from each batch of infusion fluids before sterilization, followed by incubation of the bottles after sterilization, provides a method of sterilty testing which possesses many advantages over the traditional method of culturing small samples from bottles after sterilization. (+info)
Impact of pill organizers and blister packs on adherence to pill taking in two vitamin supplementation trials.
The impact of pill organizers on pill taking was determined in the Trial of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E (TRACE) Study, a factorial trial of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation in 184 individuals. Participants were recruited in 1996-1997 and randomized to one of two groups (pill organizer or no organizer) and to one of four supplement groups for 2 months. The pill count (observed/expected X 100%) distribution was similar in the organizer and no organizer group for both vitamins. Mean differences in changes in serum vitamin levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by pill organizer use. The impact of pill organizers and blister packs was compared in another trial, the Vitamins, Teachers, and Longevity (VITAL) Study, in 297 individuals randomized in 1993-1994 to receive study pills either in blister packs or in pill organizers and to take one of two supplements. Among those with lower adherence, the pill count distribution in the blister-pack group exceeded that in the organizer group. Mean differences in serum vitamin E levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by types of pill packaging. In summary, use of blister packs, but not pill organizers, improved adherence as measured by pill counts among those with lower adherence. Neither pill delivery system improved adherence as measured by serum vitamin levels. (+info)
Progress and problems in the prescribing/dispensing split and "divided package sales" by wholesalers.
Given the rapid progress of the prescribing/dispensing split, the ability of pharmacies to obtain and stock a small quantity of pharmaceuticals is seen as essential. Toho Yakuhin's experience in "divided package sales" (wholesalers open an original package supplied by the manufacturer and sell only a part of the contents) shows that the number of orders and sales amount, and the number of pharmacies ordering in sales have remarkably increased. One or two kinds of pharmaceuticals were ordered in 73% cases, and one or two units in about 50%. This implies that "divided package sales" are utilized to obtain rarely prescribed drugs. On the other hand, five or more kinds of pharmaceuticals were ordered in 10% of cases, and ten or more units in 17%. "Divided package sales" were more used for low-price drugs. These indicated that "divided package sales" seemed to be looked upon by pharmacies as a means of obtaining a small quantity of pharmaceuticals, and seemed to be used not only in an emergency but also routinely. There are several problems for wholesalers in operating "divided package sales", such as frequent delivery, delivery cost and information supply. Pharmacies should obtain a small quantity of pharmaceuticals by the routine delivery and should share the delivery cost. Pharmaceutical manufacturers' cooperation in printing necessary information on each immediate container will be useful. Though there could be alternative ways of obtaining a small quantity of pharmaceuticals, all of them have the matter of delivery. We believe "divided package sales" will contribute to this situation. (+info)
Stability evaluation of a prostaglandin E1 saline solution packed in insulin syringes.
This article describes the preparation and stability of a sterile prostaglandin E1 solution. The solution is packed in insulin syringes as single dose injections for the treatment of erectile disfunction. The stability of this preparation is 24 weeks when stored at 5 degrees C. (+info)