Complement receptor 1 (CD35) on human reticulocytes: normal expression in systemic lupus erythematosus and HIV-infected patients.
The low levels of complement receptor 1 (CR1) on erythrocytes in autoimmune diseases and AIDS may be due to accelerated loss in the circulation, or to a diminished expression of CR1 on the red cell lineage. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of CR1 on reticulocytes (R) vs erythrocytes (E). Healthy subjects had a significant higher CR1 number per cell on R (919 +/- 99 CR1/cell) than on E (279 +/- 30 CR1/cell, n = 23), which corresponded to a 3. 5- +/- 1.3-fold loss of CR1. This intravascular loss was confirmed by FACS analysis, which showed that all R expressed CR1, whereas a large fraction of E was negative. The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), HIV-infected, and cold hemolytic Ab disease (CHAD) patients had a CR1 number on R identical to the healthy subjects, contrasting with a lower CR1 on their E. The data indicated a significantly higher loss of CR1 in the three diseases, i.e., 7.0- +/- 3.8-, 6.1- +/- 2.9-, and 9.6- +/- 5.6-fold, respectively. The intravascular loss was best exemplified in a patient with factor I deficiency whose CR1 dropped from 520 CR1/R to 28 CR1/E, i.e., 18.6-fold loss. In one SLE patient and in the factor I-deficient patient, the FACS data were consistent with a loss of CR1 already on some R. In conclusion, CR1 is lost progressively from normal E during in vivo aging so that old E are almost devoid of CR1. The low CR1 of RBC in autoimmune diseases and HIV-infection is due to a loss occurring in the circulation by an active process that remains to be defined. (+info)
Requirement of IL-5 for induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in anti-red blood cell autoantibody transgenic mice.
IL-5, IL-10 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are known to activate B-1 cells in vivo in normal mice and anti-red blood cell autoantibody transgenic mice (HL mice). To assess the exact role of IL-5 in proliferation and activation of peritoneal B-1 cells, we analyzed IL-5 receptor alpha chain-deficient HL (IL-5Ralpha-/- x HL) mice generated by the cross between IL-5Ralpha-/- and HL mice. In IL-5Ralpha-/- x HL mice, Ig-producing B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity were negligible, although the total number of B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity were as many as 30% of that in HL mice. Moreover, LPS- or IL-10-induced differentiation of B-1 cells into antibody-producing cells was severely impaired in IL-5Ralpha-/- x HL mice. We also used in vivo 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling to estimate the proliferation of B-1 cells in IL-5Ralpha-/- mice. The absence of IL-5Ralpha did not affect spontaneous proliferation of peritoneal B-1 cells. However, induced proliferation of peritoreal B-1 cells by oral administration of LPS was markedly impaired in IL-5Ralpha-/- mice. These results suggest that IL-5 is required for activation-associated proliferation of B-1 cells but not for their spontaneous proliferation and support the idea that IL-5 plays an important role on the induction of autoantibody production from B-1 cells. (+info)
Cardiac changes in fetuses secondary to immune hemolytic anemia and their relation to hemoglobin and catecholamine concentrations in fetal blood.
OBJECTIVES: Immune hemolytic anemia in the fetus may cause cardiac decompensation and intrauterine death. Postnatally, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is released in chronic heart failure, and may lead to myocardial hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine fetal cardiac changes associated with immune hemolytic anemia by means of echocardiography, and to relate them to fetal hemoglobin and norepinephrine levels. DESIGN: Thirty anemic fetuses underwent a total of 76 umbilical venous transfusions. Before the procedure, fetal echocardiography was performed, and end-diastolic myocardial wall thicknesses and ventricular dimensions together with Doppler flow patterns at the atrioventricular and semilunar valves were measured. Fetal hemoglobin, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were determined before the transfusion. Statistical analysis of this prospective study comprised descriptive statistics including linear regression and correlation analyses. Two samples of measurements were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The mean hemoglobin concentration before the first transfusion was 6.9 g% at a mean gestational age of 26.8 weeks. Norepinephrine values were elevated in comparison to a reference range, and were higher than epinephrine values. The most striking echocardiographic finding was myocardial hypertrophy of all ventricular walls. Mean blood flow velocities were increased; at the left ventricle, they were negatively related to the hemoglobin concentrations, and positively to the norepinephrine values. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal myocardial hypertrophy in anemia may be the result of an augmented cardiac workload, indicated by the increased left ventricular mean velocities. This reaction reflects the redistribution of blood flow that may depend on hemoglobin and norepinephrine concentrations. (+info)
Autologous CD34+ cells transplantation after FAMP treatment in a patient with CLL and persisting AIHA: complete remission of lymphoma with control of autoimmune complications.
A 48-year-old male with CLL and concomitant AIHA unresponsive to chlorambucil was treated with fludarabine. The remission of CLL and improvement of the AIHA was achieved, but the patient remained steroid dependent. Therefore, high-dose chemotherapy followed by CD34-selected autologous peripheral blood stem cells transplantation was performed and this led to long-term clinical, immunophenotypic and molecular remission with disappearance of AIHA. Twenty-three months later, the CLL recurred with signs of AIHA. In this patient with AIHA, HDC and selected CD34+ cells completely, though temporarily, controlled both CLL and associated immune complications. This case illustrates the potential application of this approach in the management of CLL patients with immune complications. (+info)
Galactosylation of serum IgG and autoantibodies in murine models of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.
A number of systemic autoimmune diseases are associated with increased levels of the agalactosyl (G0) IgG isoforms that lack a terminal galactose from the CH2 domain oligosaccharide. The current aim was to determine whether the galactosylation of serum IgG is also reduced in a classic antibody-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune condition, and whether the pathogenic autoantibodies are preferentially G0. In two murine forms of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), sera and autoantibodies eluted from erythrocytes were obtained, and the levels of G0 measured using a lectin-binding assay. Serum IgG galactosylation was unaffected following the induction of AIHA in CBA/Igb mice by immunization with rat erythrocytes, but in all animals with the disease the IgG autoantibodies generated were more G0 than the sera. The anti-rat erythrocyte antibodies were similar to the autoantibodies in being preferentially G0, and when CBA/Igb mice were immunized with canine erythrocytes as a control foreign antigen, there was again a bias towards the production of G0 IgG antibodies. In NZB mice with chronic, spontaneous AIHA, the concentration and galactosylation of both serum IgG and autoantibodies were lower than in the induced model, and the ratio of G0 IgG in the serum and erythrocyte eluates varied markedly between different individuals. Our interpretation of these results is that changes in serum IgG or autoantibody galactosylation are not consistent in different models of AIHA, and that production of low galactosyl antibodies can be a feature of a normal immune response. (+info)
A persistent severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia despite apparent direct antiglobulin test negativization.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Not all cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are diagnosed by the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). We present and discuss a simple method of enhancing the sensitivity of the standard DAT. DESIGN AND METHODS: We report the case of a five-month-old child diagnosed with a severe IgG-mediated AIHA, characterized by quick DAT negativization despite clinical worsening. Warm AIHA with negative DAT, possibly due to a low affinity autoantibody, unresponsive to conventional therapy, was hypothesized. RESULTS: The DAT resulted strongly positive with anti-IgG serum using a 4C saline for erythrocyte washing, to reduce the dissociation of the supposed low affinity autoantibody. Very intensive cytoreductive treatment was administered twice until clinical remission was obtained. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The clinical course of AIHA can be dissociated by the DAT. Since autoantibody-mediated hemolysis with negative DAT rarely occurs, once other causes of high reticulocyte count anemia have been ruled out, the DAT after ice-cold saline washing could be a useful and easy means of corroborating the diagnosis of AHIA, when traditional methods fail. (+info)
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in patients with SCID after T cell-depleted BM and PBSC transplantation.
We report a high incidence (19.5%) of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in 41 patients with SCID who underwent a T cell-depleted haploidentical transplant. Other than infections, AIHA was the most common post-transplant complication in this patient cohort. Clinical characteristics and treatment of eight patients who developed AIHA at a median of 8 months after the first T cell-depleted transplant are presented. All patients had warm-reacting autoantibodies, and two of eight had concurrent cold and warm autoantibodies. Clinical course was most severe in two patients who had cold and warm autoantibodies. Five patients received specific therapy for AIHA. Successful taper off immunosuppressive therapy for AIHA coincided with T cell reconstitution. Delayed reconstitution of T cell immunity, due to T cell depletion, immunosuppressive conditioning and CsA, as well as paucity of regulatory T cells, are the likely explanations for the occurrence of AIHA in our patient cohort. Screening of the population at risk may prevent morbidity and mortality from AIHA. (+info)
High pathogenic potential of low-affinity autoantibodies in experimental autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
To assess the potency of low-affinity anti-red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies in the induction of anemia, we generated an immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a class-switch variant of a 4C8 IgM anti-mouse RBC autoantibody, and compared its pathogenic potential with that of its IgM isotype and a high-affinity 34-3C IgG2a autoantibody. The RBC-binding activity of the 4C8 IgG2a variant was barely detectable, at least 1,000 times lower than that of its IgM isotype, having a high-binding avidity, and that of the 34-3C IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb). This low-affinity feature of the 4C8 mAb was consistent with the lack of detection of opsonized RBCs in the circulating blood from the 4C8 IgG2a-injected mice. However, the 4C8 IgG2a variant was highly pathogenic, as potent as its IgM isotype and the 34-3C IgG2a mAb, due to its capacity to interact with Fc receptors involved in erythrophagocytosis. In addition, our results indicated that the pentameric form of the low-affinity IgM isotype, by promoting the binding and agglutination of RBCs, is critical for its pathogenic activity. Demonstration of the remarkably high pathogenic potency of low-affinity autoantibodies, if combined with appropriate heavy chain effector functions, highlights the critical role of the Ig heavy chain constant regions, but the relatively minor role of autoantigen-binding affinities, in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (+info)