delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine.
Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals. (+info)
Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).
1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase. (+info)
The in-vitro activity of linezolid (U-100766) and tentative breakpoints.
The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities. (+info)
Aldehyde oxidase-dependent marked species difference in hepatic metabolism of the sedative-hypnotic, zaleplon, between monkeys and rats.
A marked difference in hepatic activity of aldehyde oxidase between rats and monkeys was found to be responsible for the previously reported marked species difference in the metabolism of Zaleplon in vivo. In the postmitochondrial fractions, S-9s, from liver homogenates of these animals, Zaleplon was transformed in the presence of NADPH into the side chain oxidation product, N-desethyl-Zaleplon, and the aromatic ring oxidation product, 5-oxo-Zaleplon. In the rat S-9, N-desethyl-Zaleplon and 5-oxo-Zaleplon were a major and a very minor metabolites, respectively. However, in the monkey S-9, Zaleplon was transformed into 5-oxo-Zaleplon at a much higher rate than that for N-desethyl-Zaleplon formation. N-Desethyl-Zaleplon was formed in the monkey S-9 at a rate almost equal to that in the rat S-9. N-Desethyl-5-oxo-Zaleplon was formed at a minor rate only in the monkey S-9 through N-desethyl-Zaleplon as an obligatory intermediate. The hepatic activity for the formation of 5-oxo-Zaleplon in the monkey and rat was localized in cytosol and did not require NADPH. Sensitivity to various inhibitors and requirement of water as oxygen source, using H218O, strongly suggested that the hepatic cytosolic formation of 5-oxo-Zaleplon was mediated by aldehyde oxidase. N-Desethyl-Zaleplon was formed in the presence of NADPH by microsomes from the liver of rats and monkeys, and its formation was strongly suggested using various cytochrome P-450 inhibitors to be mediated by a number of cytochrome P-450 isoforms, such as 3A, 2C, and 2D subfamilies. (+info)
Increased transcriptional activity of prostate-specific antigen in the presence of TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor.
Prostate-specific antigen, PSA, is regarded as a reliable surrogate marker for androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Concern has been raised that investigational agents may affect PSA secretion without altering tumour growth or volume. In a phase I trial, several patients with AIPC had elevated serum PSA levels while receiving TNP-470 that reversed upon discontinuation. TNP-470 inhibits capillary growth in several angiogenesis models. These observations prompted us to determine if TNP-470, or its metabolite, AGM-1883, altered PSA secretion. Intracellular protein and transcriptional levels of PSA and androgen receptor were also determined. The highest TNP-470 concentration produced a 40.6% decrease in cell number; AGM-1883 had minimal effects on cell viability. PSA secretion per cell was induced 1.1- to 1.5-fold following TNP-470 exposure. The same trend was observed for AGM-1883. PSA and AR were transcriptionally up-regulated within 30 min after exposure to TNP-470. PSA transcription was increased 1.4-fold, while androgen receptor (AR) transcription was induced 1.2-fold. The increased PSA transcriptional activity accounts for the increased PSA secretion. Increased AR transcription was also reflected at the protein level. In conclusion, TNP-470 and AGM-1883 both up-regulated PSA making clinical utilization of this surrogate marker problematic. (+info)
Bcl-XL induction during terminal differentiation of friend erythroleukaemia cells correlates with delay of apoptosis and loss of proliferative capacity but not with haemoglobinization.
Friend murine erythroleukaemia (F-MEL) cells are a useful model for studying the processes that regulate erythroid differentiation since exposure of these cells to chemical inducers (DMSO or HMBA) results in commitment to terminal cell division and synthesis of haemoglobin. This study examined the relationship between differentiation and apoptosis in DMSO sensitive and resistant F-MEL cells. Clear apoptosis was not observed in DMSO-treated sensitive F-MEL (strain 745A) cells during the induction of differentiation. In contrast, DMSO-induced 745A cells exhibited delayed apoptosis compared to uninduced cells. Since the Bcl-2 family members play a major role in the control of apoptosis and/or differentiation, we determined their expression before and after DMSO or HMBA treatment. Neither untreated nor chemically-induced 745A cells expressed the Bcl-2 protein. The levels of Bax and Bad proteins remained relatively constant during DMSO-induced differentiation. DMSO or HMBA treatment of 745A cells induced a marked increase of Bcl-XL expression during the late phase of differentiation which persisted even when the cells began to die. This upregulation of Bcl-XL was independent of cell density but was correlated with cell arrest in G0/G1. DMSO treatment induced a similar delay of apoptosis and enhancement of Bcl-XL expression in F-MEL (strain TFP10) cells which fail to synthesize haemoglobin in the presence of DMSO. Dexamethasone, which blocks DMSO-induced differentiation of F-MEL cells, prevented the induction of Bcl-XL. Inhibitors such as imidazole or succinylacetone, which inhibit haemoglobin synthesis but not commitment to terminal cell division, did not suppress Bcl-XL induction in DMSO-induced cells. Taken together, these results indicate that DMSO treatment of F-MEL cells induces a marked increase in Bcl-XL expression suggesting a role for this anti-apoptotic protein in the process of erythroid differentiation in F-MEL cells. Moreover, induction of Bcl-XL during this process seems to be associated with loss of proliferative capacity rather than with haemoglobin synthesis. (+info)
Activation of three types of voltage-independent Ca2+ channel in A7r5 cells by endothelin-1 as revealed by a novel Ca2+ channel blocker LOE 908.
1. We have shown that in addition to voltage-operated Ca2+ channel (VOC), endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates two types of Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel (NSCC) in A7r5 cells: its lower concentrations (< or = 1 nM; lower [ET-1]) activate only an SK&F 96365-resistant channel (NSCC-1), whereas its higher concentrations (> or = 10 nM; higher [ET-1]) activate an SK&F 96365-sensitive channel (NSCC-2) as well. 2. We now characterized the effects of a blocker of Ca2+ entry channel LOE 908 on NSCCs and store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC) in A7r5 cells, and using two drugs, clarified the involvement of these channels in the ET-1-induced increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). Whole-cell recordings and [Ca2+]i monitoring with fluo-3 were used. 3. LOE 908 up to 10 microM had no effect on increases in [Ca2+]i induced by thapsigargin or ionomycin, but SK&F 96365 abolished them. 4. In the cells clamped at -60 mV, both lower and higher [ET-1] induced inward currents with linear iv relationships and the reversal potentials of -15.0 mV. Thapsigargin induced no currents. 5. In the presence of nifedipine, lower [ET-1] induced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i, whereas higher [ET-1] induced a transient peak and a sustained increase. The sustained increases by lower and higher [ET-1] were abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, and they were suppressed by LOE 908 to 0 and 35%, respectively, with the LOE 908-resistant part being abolished by SK&F 96365. 6. These results show that LOE 908 is a blocker of NSCCs without effect on SOCC, and that the increase in [Ca2+]i at lower [ET-1] results from Ca2+ entry through NSCC-1 in addition to VOC, whereas the increase at higher [ET-1] involves NSCC-1, NSCC-2 and SOCC in addition to VOC. (+info)
Mechanisms of melatonin-induced vasoconstriction in the rat tail artery: a paradigm of weak vasoconstriction.
1. Vasoconstrictor effects of melatonin were examined in isolated rat tail arteries mounted either in an isometric myograph or as cannulated pressurized segments. Melatonin failed by itself to mediate observable responses but preactivation of the arteries with vasopressin (AVP) reliably uncovered vasoconstriction responses to melatonin with maxima about 50% of maximum contraction. Further experiments were conducted with AVP preactivation to 5-10% of the maximum contraction. 2. Responses to melatonin consisted of steady contractions with superimposed oscillations which were large and irregular in isometric but small in isobaric preparations. Nifedipine (0.3 microM) reduced the responses and abolished the oscillations. Charybdotoxin (30 nM) increased the magnitude of the oscillations with no change in the maximum response. 3. Forskolin (0.6 microM) pretreatment increased the responses to melatonin compared to control and sodium nitroprusside (1 microM) treated tissues. The AVP concentration required for preactivation was 10 fold higher than control in both the forskolin and nitroprusside treated groups. 4. In isometrically-mounted arteries treated with nifedipine, melatonin receptor agonists had the potency order 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > S20098 > GR196429, and the MT2-selective antagonist luzindole antagonized the effects of melatonin with a low pK(B) of 6.1+/-0.1. 5. It is concluded that melatonin elicits contraction of the rat tail artery via an mt1 or mt1-like receptor that couples via inhibition of adenylate cyclase and opening of L-type calcium channels. Calcium channels and charybdotoxin-sensitive K channels may be recruited into the responses via myogenic activation rather than being coupled directly to the melatonin receptors. 6. It is proposed that the requirement of preactivation for overt vasoconstrictor responses to melatonin results from the low effector reserve of the melatonin receptors together with the tail artery having threshold inertia. Potentiative interactions between melatonin and other vasoconstrictor stimuli probably also result from the threshold inertia. A simple model is presented and a general framework for consideration of interactions between weak vasoconstrictor agonists and other vasoconstrictor stimuli is discussed. (+info)