Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion.
Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory action on gastric acid output (76% and 70% of fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action. (+info)
Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by omeprazole.
BACKGROUND: Omeprazole has a greater intragastric pH elevating effect in Helicobacter pylori positive than negative subjects. Ammonia production by H pylori has been suggested as a probable mechanism. AIMS: To assess the effect of H pylori status on gastric acid secretion during omeprazole treatment, and to examine the possible role of ammonia neutralisation of intragastric acid in increased omeprazole efficacy in infected subjects. METHODS: Twenty H pylori positive and 12 H pylori negative healthy volunteers were examined before and six to eight weeks after commencing omeprazole 40 mg/day. On both occasions plasma gastrin and acid output were measured basally and in response to increasing doses of gastrin 17 (G-17). Gastric juice ammonium concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Prior to omeprazole, measurements were similar in the H pylori positive and negative subjects. During omeprazole, median basal intragastric pH was higher in the H pylori positive (7.95) versus negative (3.75) subjects (p<0.002). During omeprazole basal, submaximal (180 pmol/kg/h G-17), and maximal acid outputs (800 pmol/kg/h G-17) were lower in H pylori positive subjects (0.0, 3.6, 6.0 mmol/h respectively) versus negative subjects (0.3, 14.2, 18.6 mmol/h) (p<0.03 for each). This effect was not explained by neutralisation by ammonia. CONCLUSION: The presence of H pylori infection leads to a more profound suppression of acid secretion during omeprazole treatment. The effect cannot be explained by neutralisation of intragastric acid by bacterial ammonia production and its precise mechanism has to be explained. (+info)
Effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: a possible role of K(ATP) channels.
The anti-ulcer effects of nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester] were examined on water-immersion plus restraint stress-induced and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats, compared with those of cimetidine. Nicorandil (3 and 10 mg/kg) given orally to rats dose-dependently inhibited the development of acid-related damage (water-immersion- and aspirin-induced gastric lesions) in the models. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg, p.o.) also had anti-ulcer effects in the same models. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, nicorandil did not inhibit the formation of gastric lesions. Nicorandil (10 mg/kg) given intraduodenally (i.d.), like cimetidine (50 mg/kg), significantly reduced the volume of the gastric content, total acidity and total acid output in the pylorus ligation model. Glibenclamide reversed the changes caused by i.d. nicorandil. I.v. infusion of nicorandil (20 microg/kg per min) significantly increased gastric mucosal blood flow, without affecting blood pressure and heart rate, but the increase in the blood flow was not observed after i.v. treatment with glibenclamide (20 mg/kg). These results indicate that nicorandil administered orally to rats produces the anti-ulcer effect by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process in the mucosa through its K(ATP)-channel-opening property. (+info)
Serum gastrin and chromogranin A during medium- and long-term acid suppressive therapy: a case-control study.
BACKGROUND: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a reliable marker of neuroendocrine proliferation. We previously described increased serum CgA levels during short-term profound gastric acid inhibition. AIM: To investigate serum gastrin and CgA levels in dyspeptic patients during continuous medium- (6 weeks to 1 year), or long-term (1-8 years) gastric acid suppressive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, case-control study [62 patients on continuous antisecretory therapy, either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 47) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) (n = 15) for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's oesophagus or functional dyspepsia, and 52 age- and sex-matched patients without medical acid inhibition and with normal endoscopic findings (control group)]. Omeprazole doses ranged from 20 mg to 80 mg daily and ranitidine from 150 mg to 450 mg daily. Fasting serum CgA and serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (reference values: serum CgA < 4.0 nmol/L; serum gastrin < 85 ng/L). RESULTS: Fasting serum CgA levels positively correlated with serum gastrin in the entire study population (r = 0. 55, P = 0.0001). Median serum CgA values were higher in patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor than H2RA [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 2 (1.9-2.3) nmol/L, P < 0.002] and controls [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 1.8 (1.5-2.2) nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and did not differ between patients treated with H2RA or controls. Serum gastrin and CgA levels in patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy positively correlated with the degree and duration of acid inhibition. Patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy had significantly higher fasting serum gastrin and CgA than those on medium-term proton pump inhibitor therapy [127 (73-217) ng/L vs. 49 (29-78) ng/L, P < 0.0001 and 4.8 (2.8-8) ng/L vs. 2.1 (1.9-2.6) ng/L, P < 0.001]. No such relation was found in patients on medium- vs. long-term H2RA. Overall, patients with positive Helicobacter pylori serology had higher serum gastrin and CgA levels than those with negative H. pylori serology [51 (27-119) ng/L vs. 27 (14-79) ng/L, P = 0.01, 2.4 (1.9-3.4) nmol/L vs. 2.0 (1.7-2.5) nmol/L, P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term continuous proton pump inhibitor treatment, serum gastrin and CgA levels are significantly elevated compared to H2RA treatment and nontreated dyspeptic controls. H. pylori infection seems to affect gastric ECL cell secretory function. Increased serum CgA values during long-term profound gastric acid inhibition could reflect either gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperfunction or proliferative changes. (+info)
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori increases gastric acidity in patients with atrophic gastritis of the corpus-evaluation of 24-h pH monitoring.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori results in a gastric acid secretion which decreases to normal levels in patients with duodenal ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eradication of H. pylori in a 24-h study of gastric acidity in patients with atrophic gastritis of the corpus. METHODS: Intragastric acidity was measured by continuous 24-h pH monitoring, and the histology of the gastric antrum and corpus were evaluated in 14 H. pylori-positive patients with histologically proven atrophic gastritis of the corpus (10 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) before and 1 year after anti-H. pylori therapy. RESULTS: H. pylori was absent in 13 of 14 patients 1 year after treatment. Both gastritis and atrophy scores were significantly lower after eradication therapy (P < 0.01). The 24-h median pH and the percentage of 24-h pH readings above 4.0 units were significantly decreased after eradication therapy (from 5.12 +/- 0.36 to 2.69 +/- 0.21, and from 65.5 +/- 6.6% to 28.2 +/- 6.1%, P < 0.01, respectively.) CONCLUSION: Eradication of H. pylori increases 24-h gastric acidity in patients with atrophic gastritis of the corpus. Improvement of the histology of the gastric antrum and corpus may lead to the normalization of gastric acidity. (+info)
Effect of angiotensin II and telmisartan, an angiotensin1 receptor antagonist, on rat gastric mucosal blood flow.
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (ATII) has been suggested to contribute to shock-induced dysfunction of the gastric circulation. AIM: To substantiate this conjecture, the effects on gastric mucosal haemodynamics and the hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion of ATII and the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, telmisartan, were examined in normal rats and in animals subjected to haemorrhage. METHODS: Gastric mucosal blood flow in phenobarbital-anaesthetized rats was recorded with the hydrogen clearance technique, and acid back-diffusion was induced by perfusing the stomach with ethanol (25%) in HCl (0.05 M). RESULTS: Intravenous infusion of ATII (0.3-10 nmol/min/kg) led to dose-dependent hypertension and a reduction of blood flow and vascular conductance in the gastric mucosa. The gastric hyperaemia caused by acid back-diffusion was attenuated by ATII (1 nmol/min/kg). These effects of ATII were antagonized by intravenous injection of telmisartan (1-10 mg/kg) which per se caused hypotension and dilated the gastric mucosal vasculature, but did not modify the gastric mucosal hyperaemia evoked by acid back-diffusion. Hypotension induced by haemorrhage (1.3 mL blood per 100 g body weight) failed to alter the hyperaemia due to acid back-diffusion, but caused gastric mucosal vasoconstriction, an effect that was left unaffected by telmisartan. CONCLUSIONS: ATII constricts the rat gastric microvasculature via an action involving AT1 receptors. The effects of telmisartan indicate that endogenous ATII contributes to the homeostatic regulation of gastric vascular tone but does not compromise the ability of the gastric microvasculature to react to influxing acid. These results negate the concept that ATII contributes to the gastric vascular perturbances in haemorrhagic shock. (+info)
Impact of food intake on the antisecretory effect of low-dose ranitidine and famotidine.
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter status has recently been approved for low-dose H2-antagonists in several countries. Insufficient information is currently available on the effect of food in low-dose H2-antagonist therapy. AIM: Compare the antisecretory efficacy of low-dose ranitidine and famotidine in fasting and non-fasting volunteers. METHODS: Twenty volunteers were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-step crossover study comparing the antisecretory efficacy of 75 mg ranitidine, 10 mg famotidine and placebo over 12 h using intragastric pH-metry. Two standard meals were given after 4 h and 8 h of medication. Fifteen volunteers also participated in a second study comparing the antisecretory effect of both drugs, both with and without meals. RESULTS: In non-fasting subjects, the percentage of time with pH > 4 was similarly elevated for both drugs compared with placebo over the first 8 h: ranitidine 39.3%, famotidine 29.5%, placebo 9.5% (P < 0. 001); but not for the last 4 h after the second meal (P > 0.05). Comparing the first 4-h period with the second, the percentage of pH > 4 was significantly reduced for both drugs in the second period in the subjects given food at the end of the initial 4-h period (ranitidine 56.9% vs. 26.6%, P = 0.005; famotidine 46.6% vs. 13.3%, P < 0.001). It remained more or less constant, however, for the second 4-h period in fasting subjects (ranitidine 41% vs. 28.1%, P = 0.46; famotidine 52.7% vs. 52.2%, P = 0.12). CONCLUSION: In non-fasting volunteers both low-dose H2-antagonists had comparable antisecretory effects and were superior to placebo over the first 8 h of therapy. Both drugs achieved a slightly higher antisecretory effect without food intake compared to with food intake. (+info)
Low-dose lansoprazole provides greater relief of heartburn and epigastric pain than low-dose omeprazole in patients with acid-related dyspepsia.
AIM: To compare the relative efficacies of lansoprazole 15 mg o.m. and omeprazole 10 mg o.m. in relieving heartburn and epigastric pain in patients with acid-related dyspepsia. In addition, the study compared the safety profiles of the two treatments. METHODS: This double-blind, parallel group, randomised, multicentre study was conducted in 52 general practices in the UK. A total of 609 patients was recruited, 562 of whom were eligible for inclusion in the intention-to-treat analysis. All of the patients had experienced at least mild heartburn or mild epigastric pain persistently on at least 4 of the previous 7 days; patients with severe symptoms were excluded. 283 patients received lansoprazole 15 mg and 279 received omeprazole 10 mg, both for 4 weeks. The main efficacy measure was relief of symptoms, based on physician assessments. RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat population, a complete relief of overall primary symptoms of dyspepsia was achieved after 2 weeks in 53% of patients receiving lansoprazole and in 41% of patients receiving omeprazole (P = 0.007). After 4 weeks, 59% of the lansoprazole group and 51% of the omeprazole group had achieved complete symptom relief (P = 0. 078). Antacids were taken for additional relief of symptoms in fewer patients given lansoprazole compared to the omeprazole group in the third and fourth weeks (P = 0.035) and also significantly fewer antacids were taken by patients in the lansoprazole group compared with patients in the omeprazole group (P = 0.033). The proportion of patients reporting adverse events was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose lansoprazole is more effective than low-dose omeprazole in the treatment of patients with mild heartburn or epigastric pain in general practice. (+info)