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*  West Nile fever
Nile Virus-NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic West Nile Virus Resource Guide-National Pesticide Information Center Vaccine ... Lists general information and resources for West Nile Virus. West Nile Virus-West Nile Encephalitis Brain Scans. ... West Nile Virus. Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service. "West Nile virus". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 26 ... of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses. A vaccine called Chimerivax-WNV is being actively researched and has ...
*  List of vaccine topics
... vaccine West Nile virus vaccine for humans Zika fever Caries vaccine Ehrlichiosis vaccine Leprosy vaccine Lyme disease vaccine ... encephalitis virus vaccine for humans Ebola vaccine Enterovirus 71 vaccine Epstein-Barr vaccine Hepatitis C vaccine HIV vaccine ... Adenovirus vaccine Coxsackie B virus vaccine Cytomegalovirus vaccine Dengue vaccine for humans Eastern Equine ... T-lymphotropic leukemia vaccine for humans Marburg virus disease vaccine Norovirus vaccine Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine ...
*  Kunjin virus
ISBN 0-8138-0379-9. Bhattacharya, Shaoni (2003-08-12). "West Nile Virus's milder cousin gives vaccine hope". New Scientist. ... Kunjin virus (KUNV) is a zoonotic virus of the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. It is a subtype of West Nile Virus ... Both forms of Kunjin virus disease are milder than the diseases caused by West Nile virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus ... It is antigenically and genetically very similar to West Nile virus and in 1999 was reclassified as a subtype of WNV. Its ...
*  DNA vaccination
A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. DNA vaccines elicit the best immune response ... "Fort Dodge Animal Health Announces Approval of West Nile Virus DNA Vaccine for Horses". PR Newswire. 2005-07-18. Retrieved 2007 ... Second generation vaccines were developed to reduce the risks from live vaccines. These are subunit vaccines, consisting of ... First generation vaccines are whole-organism vaccines - either live and weakened, or killed forms. Live, attenuated vaccines, ...
*  Mosquito-borne disease
Currently, there are no specific vaccine therapies for West Nile virus approved for humans; however, vaccines are available and ... "West Nile virus". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2017-10-01. "West Nile virus - Diagnosis". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017- ... Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses. West Nile virus was ... Other viral transmission for Flaviviridae diseases include West Nile virus, yellow fever virus and hepatitis B and C, via ...
*  Zika fever
Serological cross-reactions with closely related flaviviruses such as dengue and West Nile virus as well as vaccines to ... Duffy, M.R.; Chen, T.H.; Hancock, W.T.; et al. (2009). "Zika Virus Outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia". New ... Tavernise, Sabrina; McNeil, Jr., Donald G. (1 February 2016). "Zika Virus a Global Health Emergency, W.H.O. Says". The New York ... Zika virus has been isolated from semen samples, with one person having 100,000 times more virus in semen than blood or urine, ...
*  Virus processing
Vaccines Viral sample extraction Water purification West Nile Virus inactivation "Nanofiltration". Eurodia.com. Retrieved 2010- ... This overarching process, which has come to be known simply as virus removal, is one in which all of the viruses in a given ... Viral inactivation renders viruses inactive, or unable to infect. Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be ... Some of the more common viruses removed by these methods are the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses; hepatitis A, B, and C; and ...
*  Domestic rabbit
West Nile virus is another threat to rabbits. This is a fatal disease, and while vaccines are available, they are not ... The genes are: W=normal width of yellow band w=doubles yellow bandwidth (Otter becomes Tan, intensified red factors in Thrianta ... They are A, B, C, D, E, En, Du, Si, V, and W. Each locus has dominant and recessive genes. In addition to the loci, there are ... Between 1924 and 1941, the relationship between the c, y, b, du, En, l, r1, r2, A, dw, w, f, and br had been established ( ...
*  Texas Biomedical Research Institute
Developing vaccine strategies for Ebola, HIV, Lassa virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and herpes. ... and vaccine development. Developing an animal model to test vaccines to protect people against the Zika virus. In 2015, it was ... Studying ways of preventing or treating diseases caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus, and dengue ... Developed vaccines, antibodies and antitoxins for deadly agents of bioterrorism such as Ebola, botulinum neurotoxins, and ...
*  Zika virus vaccine
Based on a previous platform used to develop a West Nile virus vaccine, the DNA vaccine is designed to assemble protein ... A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. As Zika virus ... This vaccine is based on the same technology used to develop a vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis Virus. As the ZPIV vaccine ... a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Additionally, as dengue virus is closely related to Zika virus, the vaccine ...
*  Biological hazard
... but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus ... and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such as Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, ... Variola virus (smallpox) is an agent that is worked with at BSL-4 despite the existence of a vaccine, as it has been eradicated ... Research work (including co-cultivation, virus replication studies, or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done ...
*  Iraqi biological weapons program
These materials included anthrax, West Nile virus and botulism, as well as Brucella melitensis, and Clostridium perfringens. ... Some of these materials were used for Iraq's biological weapons research program, while others were used for vaccine ... cit., pp 7-8. Martin, James W., George W. Christopher and Edward M. Eitzen (2007), "History of Biological Weapons: From ... In another experiment, 15 Kurdish prisoners were tied up in a field while shells containing camel pox, a mild virus, were ...
*  Globalization and disease
One example is the West Nile Virus. It is believed that this disease reached the United States via "mosquitoes that crossed the ... 12: Measles". In Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12th ed.). ... Luckily, the BCG vaccine was developed, which prevents TB meningitis and miliary TB in childhood. But, the vaccine does not ... Finding vaccines at all for some diseases remains extremely difficult. Without vaccines, the global world remains vulnerable to ...
*  Horse care
... various forms of equine encephalitis are a concern as well as West Nile Virus. Horses that travel or are exposed to other ... In the United States, many people also vaccinate against Equine Herpes Virus strains 1 and 4. Many additional vaccines may be ... Horses and ponies need annual vaccinations to protect against any number of sicknesses, though the precise vaccines required ... horses that travel are often recommended to receive equine influenza vaccines, since the disease is highly communicable. ...
*  Andrew Spielman
... that roosting birds play a key part in perpetuating the viruses that cause eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile ... Led the Phase II testing of the SmithKline Beecham Lyme disease vaccine among residents of Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and ... West Nile encephalitis, and filariasis. First description of the life cycles and ecology of the agents of human babesiosis and ...
*  La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
... focusing research efforts on new and re-emerging infectious diseases such as West Nile virus and avian influenza, along with ... The Center is led by vaccine expert Alessandro Sette, Ph.D. The development of vaccinations continues to be a major priority in ... Crotty identified the anti-H3 antibody in humans that quickly fights the smallpox virus. This is a vital finding since the ... After all, most immune onslaughts are aimed at viruses, bacteria or other biological invaders to the body. But what if the ...
*  Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
... stated that though the West Nile virus has been in British Columbia for five years, 2014 saw the first two cases of West Nile ... the CVMA maintains that research on longevity of vaccine coverage remains controversial, and vaccination schedules should be ... On the issue of the northward migration of the West Nile virus, according to the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association - BC ... CLAXTON, MATTHEW (25 August 2014). "West Nile virus hits B.C. horses". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 20 March 2016. https://www. ...
*  Flaccid paralysis
AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses, echoviruses, West Nile virus, and ... Vaccines and the Forgotten History. Suzanne Humphries MD and Roman Bystrianyk. 2013. Vashisht, Neetu; Puliyel, Jacob; Sreenivas ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with West Nile virus infection-- ... "Acute flaccid paralysis and West Nile virus infection". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (7): 788-93. doi:10.3201/eid0907.030129 ...
*  2015-16 Zika virus epidemic
... spectrum antivirals in Zika virus as they have shown compelling efficacy across other flaviviruses such as Dengue and West Nile ... The three approaches to the vaccine include an inactive Zika virus test and the other two involve replicas of the virus's ... Viruses portal Zika virus outbreak timeline Health crisis "All Countries and Territories with Active Zika Virus Transmission". ... Three vaccine designs are showing high confidence levels of protection against the Zika virus. Scientists have conducted tests ...
*  Virus
The influence of weather conditions on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases by the example of West Nile fever in Russia). ... These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Subunit ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Once the virus has been identified, the chain of transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines. When vaccines are not ...
*  Rabies
... and arboviruses such as West Nile virus. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type one, varicella ... Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits, from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing ... as is illustrated by the outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Epidemiologic factors, ... The virus has also adapted to grow in cells of cold-blooded vertebrates. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can ...
*  Aedes
West Nile fever, chikungunya, eastern equine encephalitis, and Zika virus, along with many other, less notable diseases. ... A vaccine to provide protection from yellow fever exists, and measures to prevent mosquito bites include: insecticides such as ... The two most prominent species that transmit viruses are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus which transmit the viruses that ... Infections with these viruses are typically accompanied by a fever, and, in some cases, encephalitis, which can lead to death. ...
*  Social history of viruses
The virus that causes La Crosse encephalitis was discovered in the 1960s, and West Nile virus arrived in New York in 1999. As ... Although vaccines are still the most powerful weapon against viruses, in recent decades antiviral drugs have been developed to ... West Nile virus, a flavivirus, was first identified in 1937 when it was found in the blood of a feverish woman. The virus, ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ...
*  H5N1 clinical trials
The vaccine does not contain any infectious material from the influenza virus. Unlike conventional flu vaccines, which are ... SARS and West Nile. [...] The study will enroll 45 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 60. Fifteen will receive placebo ... This is the first VRC candidate vaccine manufactured at the VRC Vaccine Pilot Plant. The candidate vaccine went from the ... The candidate vaccine, synthesized using a modified version of the hemagglutinin (H) gene from the H5N1 influenza virus, was ...
*  Zoonosis
The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the ... The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease ... Examples include rabies, anthrax, tularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been ... Similarly, in recent times avian influenza and West Nile virus have spilled over into human populations probably due to ...
*  Vector (epidemiology)
Examples of vector-borne zoonotic diseases include: Dengue fever Lyme disease Plague West Nile virus Many factors affect the ... Parrish, Ryan (7 April 2014). "WHO focuses on vector-borne diseases for World Health Day 2014". Vaccine News Daily. Chicago, ... Later it transpired that the virus was transmitted by the zoospores of the fungus and also survived in the resting spores. ... Since then, many other fungi in the Chytridiomycota have been shown to vector plant viruses. Many plant pests that seriously ...