*Ashfall Fossil Beds

The bones of the animals show features that indicate that the animals died of lung failure induced by inhaling volcanic ash. ... Ash from a Yellowstone hotspot eruption 10-12 million years ago created these fossilized bone beds. The Ashfall Fossil Beds are ... The Ashfall deposit preserves the fossilized remains of ancient animals that perished in a dense volcanic ash fall which ... The fall of ash drifted downwind from the Bruneau-Jarbidge supervolcano eruption (in present-day Idaho), nearly 1,000 miles ( ...

*List of large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province

Named ones include: Coso Volcanic Field, Mono Lake Volcanic Field, Marysvale Volcanic Field, San Juan volcanic field, Indian ... Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province include Basin and Range eruptions in California, Idaho, ... Jemez volcanic lineament, Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, Santa Rosa-Calico, and Boot Heel volcanic field. Many geological ... 2004). Largest explosive eruptions: New results for the 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff and the La Garita caldera, San Juan volcanic ...

*Types of volcanic eruptions

The vast majority of volcanic eruptions are of VEIs between 0 and 2. Volcanic eruptions by VEI index Magmatic eruptions produce ... Plinian eruptions (or Vesuvian) are a type of volcanic eruption, named for the historical eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD ... Submarine eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption that occurs underwater. An estimated 75% of the total volcanic eruptive ... Several types of volcanic eruptions-during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted ...

*List of largest volcanic eruptions

In a volcanic eruption, lava, volcanic bombs and ash, and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. While ... Volcanic eruptions can generally be characterized as either explosive eruptions, sudden ejections of rock and ash, or effusive ... 2005). "Volcanic stratigraphy of large-volume silicic pyroclastic eruptions during Oligocene Afro-Arabian flood volcanism in ... Supplementary Table I: "Supplementary Table to P.L. Ward, Thin Solid Films (2009) Major volcanic eruptions and provinces" (PDF ...

*Maritime impacts of volcanic eruptions

Water is the main component in volcanic eruptions; it is what makes them so explosive. Through chemical reactions, toxic gases ... The NOAA Ship Miller Freeman reported light accumulations of volcanic ash during the 2008 Okmok eruption in Dutch Harbor, ... "for miles through masses of volcanic debris" after an eruption on the island of Sagir in the Indonesian archipelago. It was ... Certain types of volcanic ash do not dissolve easily in water. Instead, they clump on the surface of the ocean in pumice rafts ...

*List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions

... volcanic belt and volcanic zone. Second: volcanic area, caldera cluster and caldera complex. Third: volcanic field, volcanic ... A volcanic group (aka a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms. Neutral: volcanic cluster ... This article is a list of volcanic eruptions of approximately magnitude 6 or more on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) or ... The Latir-Questa volcanic locus and the Taos Plateau volcanic field seem to be in a similar area. The Southwest Nevada volcanic ...

*List of known large volcanic eruptions

List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to ... Supplementary Table I: "Supplementary Table to P.L. Ward, Thin Solid Films (2009) Major volcanic eruptions and provinces" (PDF ... "The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth". Earth-Science Reviews. 102 (3-4): 207-229. Bibcode:2010ESRv..102..207B. doi:10.1016/j ... Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI- ...

*2009 Tonga undersea volcanic eruption

Coordinates: 20°34′S 175°23′W / 20.57°S 175.38°W / -20.57; -175.38 The 2009 Tonga undersea volcanic eruption began on March ... The Smithsonian subsequently confirmed that the eruption began on March 16. See: SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. 18 ... Footage of the eruption, BBC website "The Big Picture - Undersea eruptions near Tonga". The Boston Globe. 19 March 2009. ... also suggested that the earthquake was likely to have a direct impact on the volcanic eruption, stating that the "strength of ...

*List of volcanic eruptions by death toll

List of disasters List of volcanic eruption deaths List of natural disasters by death toll List of large volcanic eruptions in ... Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive, volatile, or neither. Certain volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, ... "Local and Global Impacts of the 1783-84 Laki Eruption in Iceland". Wired. "What is the largest eruption ever? , Volcano World ... "Krakatoa Volcano: Facts About Deadly Eruption". Live Science. "Benchmarks: May 8, 1902: The deadly eruption of Mount Pelée , ...

*List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century

List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century List of natural ... This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 19th century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4. Note that ... by death toll Lists of volcanoes VEI glossary entry from a USGS website How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, from ... there may be many other eruptions that have not been identified, and estimates for the size of eruptions can be subject to ...

*List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century

List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century List of natural ... This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 20th century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4, as well as ... Note that there may be many other eruptions that have not been identified, and estimates for the size of eruptions can be ... VEI glossary entry from a USGS website How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, from The Guardian The size and frequency ...

*List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century

List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century List of natural ... This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 21st century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4, as well as ... VEI glossary entry from a USGS website How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, from The Guardian The size and frequency ... disasters by death toll List of volcanic eruptions by death toll Lists of volcanoes "Ulawun". Global Volcanism Program. ...

*Catherine Hickson

"Eruption Types (Volcanic Eruptions)." Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards. Springer Netherlands, 2013. 290-293. 2000 Hickson, ... 2013 Base Surge; Nuee Ardente; Volcanic Eruptions; Magma; Eruption Types in Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards, Peter T. Bobrowsky ... Volcanic ash and aviation safety: Proceedings of the first international symposium on volcanic ash and aviation safety: US ... Factors Influencing Volcanic Hazards and the Morphology of Volcanic Landforms. In: John F. Shroder (ed.) Treatise on ...

*El Chichón

The 1982 eruption of El Chichón is the largest volcanic disaster in modern Mexican history. The powerful 1982 explosive ... List of volcanoes in Mexico Robock, Alan, 2001: Volcanic eruption, El Chichón. in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, ... The total volume of the eruption was much smaller than the famous eruption of Pinatubo in 1991; however El Chichón's impacts ... The amount of sulfur dioxide is comparable to the 20 million tonnes of the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. The eruption ...

*George P. L. Walker

"Explosive volcanic eruptions - IV. The control of magma properties and conduit geometry on eruption column behaviour". ... Walker, George P. L. (July 1973). "Explosive volcanic eruptions - a new classification scheme". Geologische Rundschau. 62 (2): ... He worked on the volcanic rocks of Iceland and on Mount Etna. He taught at Imperial College. In 1978, he was Captain James Cook ... Wilson, C. J. N.; Walker, G. P. L. (1985). "The Taupo Eruption, New Zealand I. General Aspects". Philosophical Transactions of ...

*Rossi-Forel scale

Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions. A Handbook on Risk Assessment. Zurich: Swiss Reinsurance Company. ...

*Io (moon)

Galileo observed the effects of a major eruption at Pillan Patera and confirmed that volcanic eruptions are composed of ... New Horizons also captured images of a volcano near Girru Patera in the early stages of an eruption, and several volcanic ... These features are often the site of volcanic eruptions, either from lava flows spreading across the floors of the paterae, as ... 1979). "Volcanic eruption plumes on Io". Nature. 280 (5725): 733-736. Bibcode:1979Natur.280..733S. doi:10.1038/280733a0. Peale ...

*Exploration of Io

... the consequence of a volcanic eruption there. As a result of the discovery of active volcanic plumes by Voyager 1, a ten-hour " ... 1979). "Volcanic eruption plumes on Io". Nature. 280 (5725): 733-736. Bibcode:1979Natur.280..733S. doi:10.1038/280733a0. Hanel ... The temperatures observed at Pillan and other volcanoes confirmed that volcanic eruptions on Io consist of silicate lavas with ... Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M. (1982). "Volcanic eruptions on Io". In Morrison, D. Satellites of Jupiter. University of Arizona ...

*Polar vortex

Volcanic eruptions in the tropics can lead to a stronger polar vortex during winter for as long as two years afterwards. The ... ISBN 978-0-521-62430-5. Robock, Alan (2000). "Volcanic eruptions and climate". Reviews of Geophysics. 38 (2): 191-219. Bibcode: ...

*Mount Garibaldi

Volcanic eruptions in Canada rarely cause fatalities because of their remoteness and low level of activity. The only known ... "Kinds Of Volcanic Eruptions". VolcanoWorld. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-15. Wood, Charles A ... While there is a likelihood of Canada being critically affected by local or close by volcanic eruptions argues that some kind ... Like other stratovolcanoes, it is composed of many layers of hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash. Eruptions are explosive ...

*Volcanism

The amount of gas and ash emitted by volcanic eruptions has a significant effect on the Earth's climate. Large eruptions ... news.sciencemag.org/space/2014/10/recent-volcanic-eruptions-moon?rss=1 "Glossary of Volcanic Terms". G. J. Hudak, University of ... Nemzer, J. "Geothermal heating and cooling". Robock, Alan (2000). "Volcanic eruptions and climate". Reviews of geophysics 38 (2 ... Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon ...

*Lonwolwol

The village had a hospital that was destroyed in a volcanic eruption in 1913. As a result of the eruption a new lake called ... "Vanuatu Volcanic Eruption". World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 7 April 2009. Retrieved 22 July ...

*530s

Major volcanic eruption. January 11 - Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different chariot teams-the ... Reports of the eruption of Krakatoa (Java), which possibly lead to several years of climate change (see Climate changes of 535- ... It is possible this was caused by the eruption of Ilopango. March 2 - Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoth army (45,000 men) under King ...

*531

Major volcanic eruption. Li Delin, Chinese official and writer (d. 591) Waldrada, Lombard princess (d. 572) Yan Zhitui, Chinese ...

*Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event

In particular, volcanic eruptions, climate change, sea level change, and other impact events have been suggested to play a role ... This is reminiscent of areas blighted by modern volcanic eruptions, where the recovery is led by ferns, which are later ... Smathers, GA; Mueller-Dombois D (1974). Invasion and Recovery of Vegetation after a Volcanic Eruption in Hawaii, Scientific ... Courtillot, Vincent (1990). "A volcanic eruption". Scientific American. 263 (4): 85-92. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1090-85. ...

*Muon tomography

More recently, muons have been used to image magma chambers to predict volcanic eruptions. Nagamine et al. continue active ... "Volcanic tremor and short-term prediction of eruptions". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 77 (1-4): 305-311. doi ... research into the prediction of volcanic eruptions through cosmic ray attenuation radiography. Minato used cosmic ray counts to ...

*Block (meteorology)

Volcanic eruptions in the tropics lead to a stronger polar vortex during the winter for as long as two years afterwards. The ... Alan Robock (May 2000). "Volcanic Eruptions and Climate" (PDF). Review of Geophysics. Rutgers University. 38 (2): 171. Bibcode: ...