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*  Vitamin D deficiency in Australia
"Calcium, Vitamin D and Osteoporosis" (PDF). "Vitamin D , Nutrient Reference Values". www.nrv.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-09-02. Daly ... Additionally, if you consume vitamin D through your diet, or make vitamin D in your skin from UVB exposure, it is processed ... "VItamin D in Australia" (PDF). "Vitamin D deficiency and multicultural Australia". The Medical Journal of Australia. 2001. ... The popular term Sunshine vitamin, as it's often called, is one of the one main sources of achieving sufficient Vitamin D ...
*  Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord
It has been thought that if someone is deficient in vitamin B12 and folic acid, the vitamin B12 deficiency must be treated ... Therapy with vitamin B12 results in partial to full recovery where SACD has been caused by a B12 deficiency, depending on the ... Vitamin E deficiency, which is associated with malabsorption disorders such as cystic fibrosis and Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, ... Prolonged deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to irreversible nervous system damage. HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy can present ...
*  Vitamin D deficiency
... can also be caused by inadequate nutritional intake of vitamin D, disorders limiting vitamin D absorption ... Section Dosage of Vitamin D Needed To Achieve 35 to 40 ng/ml (90-100 nmol/L). Re-published from Moyad MA (2008). "Vitamin D: a ... Vitamin D3, however, appears to decrease the risk of death from cancer but concerns with the quality of the data exist. Vitamin ... Vitamin D at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Professional Edition Rajakumar K (August 2003). "Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, ...
*  Folate deficiency
Multi-vitamins also tend to include Folate as well as many other B vitamins. B vitamins, such as Folate, are water-soluble and ... The role of vitamin B12 and folate in depression is due to their role in transmethylation reactions, which are crucial for the ... Also known as vitamin B9, folate is involved in adenosine, guanine, and thymidine synthesis (part of DNA synthesis). Signs of ... Medications that interfere with the body's ability to use folate may also increase the need for this vitamin. Some research ...
*  Nicotinate-nucleotide-dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is used as a cofactor in a number of enzyme-catalysed reactions in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ... Fyfe JA, Friedmann HC (1969). "Vitamin B 12 biosynthesis. Enzyme studies on the formation of the alpha-glycosidic nucleotide ... Roessner CA, Santander PJ, Scott AI (2001). "Multiple biosynthetic pathways for vitamin B12: variations on a central theme". ... Scott AI, Roessner CA (August 2002). "Biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B(12))". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 30 (4): 613-20. doi: ...
*  Precorrin-2 C20-methyltransferase
Anousis N, Stolowich NJ, Holderman MT, Scott AI (1995). "Overexpression in Escherichia coli of 12 vitamin B12 biosynthetic ...
*  Neural tube defect
Vitamin B12 is also an important receptor in the folate biopathway such that studies have shown deficiency in vitamin B12 ... doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp347 "Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin ... vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 during pregnancy have been found to lead to increased risk of NTDs. Although both are part of the ... Li, F.; Watkins, D.; Rosenblatt, D. S. (2009). "Vitamin B-12 and birth defects". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 98 (1-2): ...
*  Victor Herbert (hematologist)
An early sign of negative vitamin B-12 balance. Lab. Investig. 58:332-337.[Medline] NCAHF - Obituary of Victor Herbert, MD, JD ... 2. Herbert, V. & Zalusky, R. (1962) Interrelations of vitamin B-12 and folic acid metabolism: folic acid clearance studies. J. ... Haemoglobin-coated charcoal assay for serum vitamin in B-12. Blood 28:130-132.[Free Full Text] 7. Das, K. C. & Herbert, V. ( ... suppression test and chromosomes in patients with past deficiency of folate and vitamin B-12. Br. J. Haematol. 38:219-233.[ ...
*  Cyanocobalamin
Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 deficiency Methylcobalamin Adenosylcobalamin Hydroxocobalamin Quadros, EV. "Advances in the ... Vitamin B12, Proceedings of the Third European Symposium on Vitamin B12 and Intrinsic Factor. 1979;1045-1054. "DSM in Food, ... Vitamin B 12 also becomes inactive due to Nitrous oxide N 2O commonly known as laughing gas, used for anaesthesia and abused as ... Vitamin B 12 is the "generic descriptor" name for any vitamers of vitamin B 12. Because humans and animals can convert ...
*  Acute myeloid leukemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency), folic acid deficiency and copper deficiency. Marrow or blood is examined under light microscopy, as ... "Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 300 (6734): 1263-1264. doi:10.1136/ ... 99 (6): 1909-12. doi:10.1182/blood.V99.6.1909. PMID 11877259. Haferlach T, Schoch C, Löffler H, Gassmann W, Kern W, Schnittger ... 10 (12): 1419-32. doi:10.1023/A:1008375931236. PMID 10643532. Foucar, Kathryn. "Bone Marrow Pathology" (PDF) (3rd ed.). ASCP. ...
*  Haptocorrin
Vitamin B12 is therefore an important vitamin for the body to absorb. Despite its vital role however, vitamin B12 is ... Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin, the deficiency of which creates anemia (macrocytic anemia), decreased bone ... In the duodenum, the free vitamin B12 attaches to the intrinsic factor (IF) to create a vitamin B12-IF complex. This complex ... This protein binds strongly to vitamin B12 in what is an intricate and necessary mechanism to protect this vitamin from the ...
*  Food fortification
An example is skim milk that has had the fat removed, and then had vitamin A and vitamin D added back. Vitamins A and D are ... Since Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, it cannot be added to a wide variety of foods. Foods that it is commonly added to are ... Vitamins and co-vitamins Essential minerals Essential fatty acids Essential amino acids Phytonutrients Enzymes Many foods and ... vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food irrespective of whether the nutrients were originally in the food ...
*  Cobalamin biosynthesis
In molecular biology, cobalamin biosynthesis is the synthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is a ... Cobalamin (vitamin B12) can be complexed with metal via the ATP-dependent reactions (aerobic pathway) (e.g., in P. ... Heldt D, Lawrence AD, Lindenmeyer M, Deery E, Heathcote P, Rigby SE, Warren MJ (August 2005). "Aerobic synthesis of vitamin B12 ... The CbiQ family consists of various cobalt transport proteins Most of which are found in Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) biosynthesis ...
*  Tempeh
"Vitamin B12: Are You Getting It?". Vegan Health. Amanda Rose. "Soy and Phytic Acid: Stick with Fermented Tempeh and Miso". ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Liem, IT; Steinkraus, KH; Cronk, TC (December 1977). "Production of vitamin B-12 in ... Truesdell, Delores D.; Green, Nancy R.; Acosta, Phyllis B. (1987). "Vitamin B12 Activity in Miso and Tempeh". Journal of Food ... In traditional tempeh-making shops, the starter culture often contains beneficial bacteria that produce vitamins such as B12 ( ...
*  Ketchup as a vegetable
... vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 exceed one third of RDA; and calcium and vitamin C met the one third requirement. On ...
*  C. Lockard Conley
He made significant contributions to developing a therapy for vitamin B-12 deficiency. In 1947 he discovered and described ... Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013. "C. Lockard Conley (1915-2010)". Legends in ...
*  Digestion
Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K (K2MK7) produced by bacteria in the colon are also absorbed into the blood in the ... To digest vitamin B12 non-destructively, haptocorrin in saliva strongly binds and protects the B12 molecules from stomach acid ... Some nutrients are complex molecules (for example vitamin B12) which would be destroyed if they were broken down into their ... Nexo E, Hoffmann-Lücke E (July 2011). "Holotranscobalamin, a marker of vitamin B-12 status: analytical aspects and clinical ...
*  Group 9 element
Cobalt is an essential trace nutrient to all animals, found in vitamin B-12. Rhodium, iridium, and meitnerium have no known ...
*  Folate
Other names include vitamin B9, vitamin Bc, vitamin M, folacin, and pteroyl-L-glutamate. Folate intake during pregnancy has ... Folate, forms of which are known as folic acid and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins. The recommended daily intake of folate ... One way to differentiate between folate (vitamin B9) deficiency from vitamin B12 deficiency is by testing for methylmalonic ... Increased homocysteine level suggests tissue folate deficiency but homocysteine is also affected by vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 ...
*  List of hematologic conditions
Hall, C. A. (November 1975). "Transcobalamins I and II as natural transport proteins of vitamin B12". J. Clin. Invest. 56 (5): ... Mayo Clinic staff (March 4, 2011). "Vitamin deficiency anemia". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Mayo Clinic ... Gräsbeck, R. (May 19, 2006). "Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B(12) malabsorption with proteinuria)". Orphanet J ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2011-03-04. Jaffe E.S., Harris N.L., ...
*  Achlorhydria
... and vitamins (including vitamin C, vitamin K, and the B complex of vitamins). Such deficiencies may be involved in the ... A check can exclude deficiencies in iron, calcium, prothrombin time, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, and thiamine. Complete blood ... Treatment of gastritis that leads to pernicious anemia consists of parenteral vitamin B-12 injection. Associated immune- ... Lee CR, Cho IH, Jeong BC, Lee SH (Sep 12, 2013). "Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance". Int J Environ Res Public ...
*  Metformin
Ting R; Szeto C; Chan M; Ma K; Chow K (2006). "Risk factors of vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients receiving metformin". Arch ... 2010). "Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised ... Long-term use of metformin has been associated with increased homocysteine levels and malabsorption of vitamin B12. Higher ... Andrès E; Noel E; Goichot B (2002). "Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency". Arch Intern Med. 162 (19): 2251-52. doi: ...
*  Natural product
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a constituent of FMN and FAD which are necessary for many redox reactions. Vitamin B3 (nicotinic ... Primary metabolite enzymatic cofactors include members of the vitamin B family. Vitamin B1 as thiamine diphosphate is a ... Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Vitamin B12 (cobalamins) contain a corrin ring similar in structure to porphyrin and is an essential coenzyme for the ...
*  Vegetarianism
... vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at ... Vitamin D2: 3.9 μg (154 IU) Mushrooms, shiitake, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.4 μg (18 IU) Mushrooms, portabella, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.3 μg ... Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2. Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button ... "Vitamins and minerals - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2015-02-18. Retrieved 2015-03-31. Mozafar, A. (1997). "Is there vitamin B12 in ...
*  List of experiments
Robert Burns Woodward announces the total synthesis of Vitamin B-12 by a team he led (1973). Insights from this work lead him ... who briefly simulated auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals. The ...
*  Fermented tea
Batabatacha has been found to contain significant amounts of Vitamin B12. Goishicha (碁石茶) from Otoyo, Kochi and Ishizuchi- ... Raloff, Janet (January 28, 2004). "Bacteria Brew a B Vitamin Boost". Retrieved 11 August 2014. "Saijo City Sightseeing ... "Lao Man'e: a Bulang Village in Transformation" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 溫, 志杰; 張, 凌云; 吳, 平; 何, 勇強 (2010), "黑茶加工中微 ... 12 (3): 71. Jung, Seo-Kyeong (2015). "Historycity about Coastal inflow of tteok-tea to Jeon-nam". Journal of North-East Asian ...
*  Microwave oven
Like other heating methods, microwaving converts vitamin B12 from an active to inactive form; the amount of conversion depends ... Microwave blanching is 3-4 times more effective than boiled water blanching in the retaining of the water-soluble vitamins ... boiling water blanching on retention of selected water-soluble vitamins in turnips, foods, and greens using HPLC". National ... leading to faster breakdown of vitamin B12. The higher rate of loss is partially offset by the shorter cooking times required. ...