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*  Microcrystalline cellulose
"New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays". Virology Journal. BioMed Central. 3: 63. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-3-63 ... It is also used in plaque assays for counting viruses, as an alternative to carboxymethylcellulose. A naturally occurring ...
*  Virus quantification
Viral plaque assays determine the number of plaque forming units (pfu) in a virus sample, which is one measure of virus ... as these viruses would not be amenable to the plaque assay. Like the plaque assay, host cell monolayers are infected with ... The focus forming assay (FFA) is a variation of the plaque assay, but instead of relying on cell lysis in order to detect ... For example, the production of viral vaccines, recombinant proteins using viral vectors and viral antigens all require virus ...
*  Viral plaque
Assay Viral culture Virus Virus quantification Virology Finter, N. B (1969-10-01). "Dye Uptake Methods for Assessing Viral ... A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g ... Counting the number of plaques can be used as a method of virus quantification. These plaques can sometimes be detected ... or only reduce the rate of cell growth give turbid plaques. Some partially lysogenic phages give bull's-eye plaques with spots ...
*  Assay
The viral plaque assay is to calculate the number of viruses present in a sample. In this technique the number of viral plaques ... DNase footprinting assay Filter binding assay Gel shift assay Bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA assay) Bradford protein assay Lowry ... Chemotaxis assay Secretion assays Apoptosis assays such as the DNA laddering assay, the Nicoletti assay, caspase activity ... to invade eukaryotic cells Metastasis Assay Crude oil assay The HPCE-based viral titer assay uses a proprietary, high- ...
*  Plaque reduction neutralization test
Viral quantification using the plaque assay ELISA Schmidt, N J; J Dennis; E H Lennette (1976-07). "Plaque reduction ... The concentration of plaque forming units can be estimated by the number of plaques (regions of infected cells) formed after a ... "Dengue Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in Primary and Secondary Dengue Virus Infections: How Alterations in Assay ... The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titer of neutralising antibody for a virus. The serum sample ...
*  Picornavirus
The plaque assay was developed using poliovirus; the discovery of viral replication in culture was also with poliovirus in 1949 ... Depending on the type and degree of dehydration the viral particle is around 27-30 nm in diameter. The viral genome is around ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ... Picornaviruses have a viral protein (VPg) covalently linked to 5' end of their genomes instead of 7-methylguanosine cap like ...
*  List of MeSH codes (E05)
... viral load MeSH E05.200.875.970 --- virus cultivation MeSH E05.200.875.970.790 --- plaque assay MeSH E05.200.875.977 --- virus ... colony-forming units assay MeSH E05.200.500.383.910 --- tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.385 --- cytogenetic analysis ... tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.337.550.200.900 --- xenograft model antitumor assays MeSH E05.337.550.200.900.830 --- subrenal ... drug screening assays, antitumor MeSH E05.200.500.388.930 --- tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.410 --- electroporation ...
*  Cell culture
... infection and viral replication may result in host cell lysis and formation of a viral plaque. Human cell lines DU145 (prostate ... Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 12 (4): 207-18. doi:10.1089/adt.2014.573. PMC 4026212 . PMID 24831787. Bhattacharya M ... Viral culture is also related, with cells as hosts for the viruses. The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a ... Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses or viral products may be generated in cell types other than their natural hosts ...
*  Porcine parvovirus
A titration procedure wherein infected cells are made evident by IF microscopy and a plaque assay also have been described. ... The first unequivocal evidence of viral replication is the appearance of nascent viral antigen in the nucleus (Fig. 2A). In at ... Viral antigen is detected in the cytoplasm of cells soon after infection if the inoculum contains a high titer of virus and ... The viral genome is single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 106 (i.e., about 26.5% of the ...
*  Mutagen
Transgenic mouse assay using a mouse strain infected with a viral shuttle vector is another method for testing mutagens. ... Using similar method as the blue-white screen, the plaque formed with DNA containing mutation are white, while those without ... Such systems include the HPRT assay for resistance to 8-azaguanine or 6-thioguanine, and ouabain-resistance (OUA) assay. Rat ... Mice may also be used for dominant lethal assays where early embryonic deaths are monitored. Male mice are treated with ...
*  Vero cell
It is useful for detecting and counting hemorrhagic fever viruses by plaque assays. Vero E6, also known as Vero C1008 (ATCC No ... Research strains transfected with viral genes: Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein ... or the growth of viral stocks for research purposes as host cells for eukaryotic parasites, specially of the trypanosomatids ...
*  Colony-forming unit
Cell counting Growth medium Miles and Misra method Most probable number Replica plating Viral plaque Goldman, Emanuel; Green, ... "Optimized digital counting colonies of clonogenic assays using ImageJ software and customized macros: comparison with manual ...
*  Indirect immunoperoxidase assay
After viral growth, viral detection by IPA yields the infectious virus titer, expressed as tissue culture infectious dose ( ... to detect and tirate viruses that do not cause measurable cytopathic effects and cannot be measured by classical plaque assays ... Indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) is a laboratory technique used ... by an Indirect Immunoperoxidase Assay". SARS- and Other Coronaviruses. Methods in Molecular Biology. 454. p. 93. doi:10.1007/ ...
*  Hemagglutination
... attenuated viruses can therefore be used in assays while an additional assay such as a plaque assay must be used to determine ... A consequence of this is that at certain concentrations, a viral suspension may bind together (agglutinate) the RBCs, thus ... While less accurate than a plaque assay, it is cheaper and quicker (taking just 30 minutes). This assay may be modified to ... By serially diluting a virus suspension into an assay tray (a series of wells of uniform volume) and adding a standard amount ...
*  Bacteriophage T12
Plaque assays consist of pouring a soft agar solution with an indicator strain onto an agar plate. The indicator strain should ... Strep TSS is an acute, febrile illness that begins with a mild viral-like syndrome characterized by fever, chills, myalgia, ... "Plaque Assay Protocols". Microbe Library. American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. ... The presence of lysogenic bacteriophage T12 can be tested through plaque assays if the indicator strain utilized is susceptible ...
*  GPR84
A viral infection following Japanese encephalitis virus infection also increased GPR84 expression by 2-4.5% in the mice brain. ... Finally, it has also shown that GPR84 expression is increased in both the normal appearing white matter and plaque in brains ... in the cAMP assay). These results suggest that GPR84 activation by medium-chain FFAs is coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive ...
*  Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
"SOFIA: An Assay Platform for Ultrasensitive Detection of PrPSc in Brain and Blood" (PDF). SUNY Downstate Medical Center. ... The priority given the search for a viral infectious agent almost cost Stanley Prusiner tenure when his research showed that a ... and amyloid plaque formation. These features are shared with prion diseases in animals, and the recognition of these ... This hypothesis postulates that an infectious viral agent is the cause of the disease. Evidence for this hypothesis is as ...
*  Lassa fever
These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium Lassa fever Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed April 6, 2016 Kieny ... Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. Many ... Ribavirin is a prodrug which appears to interfere with viral replication by inhibiting RNA-dependent nucleic acid synthesis, ...
*  List of MeSH codes (E01)
... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH E01.370 ... viral MeSH E01.450.230.700 --- spinal puncture MeSH E01.450.230.900 --- vaginal smears MeSH E01.450.375.107 --- blood cell ... hemolytic plaque technique MeSH E01.450.495.385 --- histocompatibility testing MeSH E01.450.495.385.120 --- blood grouping and ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH ...
*  Virus counter
... a direct measurement of the concentration of virus particles in a fraction of the time required for traditional plaque assays. ... Antiviral Research Viral Vector Research and Protein Expression Bioprocess Optimization Viral Antigen Characterization Viral ... the values tended to be significantly higher than those obtained by standard plaque titer methods typically used for virus ... both being substantially higher than plaque titer values. While this early, simple version of the instrument provided proof of ...
*  Jamestown Canyon virus
In 2010 CDC developed an ELISA also for JCV IgM . Similarly, the New York State Department of Health has performed JCV plaque ... It does the latter by an immunofluorescence assay. Prior to the 1990s, the only tests for California serogroup virus infections ... "California Group Seroviruses". In Liu D. Molecular Detection of Human Viral Pathogens. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 609-610 ... The CDC has used plaque reduction neutralization tests to detect JCV neutralizing antibodies since 1995. The test is ...
*  Laboratory Syrian hamster
Hamsters develop atherosclerotic plaques as humans do. Smoke inhalation can be studied on Syrian hamsters by putting the ... Syrian hamsters may be infected with the virus, and like humans will have viral replication and lesions in the respiratory ... "Measurement of the scrapie agent using an incubation time interval assay". Annals of Neurology. 11 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1002/ana. ... Milazzo, ML; Eyzaguirre, EJ; Molina, CP; Fulhorst, CF (15 November 2002). "Maporal viral infection in the Syrian golden hamster ...
*  Graves' disease
Measuring TSH-receptor antibodies with the h-TBII assay has been proven efficient and was the most practical approach found in ... Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears suddenly, often later in life, a viral or bacterial infection may ... causing an inflammatory reaction and subsequent fibrous plaques. The three types of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor ...
*  Clinical neurochemistry
The two types of senile plaques are diffuse plaques and neuritic plaques, and differ in morphology. In addition to the amyloid ... One assay to determine the extent at which a ligand binds to its receptor is the radioligand binding assay (RBA), in which ... Gene therapy may provide a novel route to introduce new dopamine production via viral-medicated gene transfection, but clinical ... While the RBA assay assumes that the tissue prepared has just one molecular target per ligand, in actuality this may not be the ...
*  Prion
The RT-QuIC assay, a microplate reader-based prion detection method which uses as reagents normally folded prions, ... Aggregations of these abnormal isoforms form highly structured amyloid fibers, which accumulate to form plaques. It is unclear ... Evidence in favor of a viral hypothesis includes: Strain variation: differences in prion infectivity, incubation, symptomology ... Prions cause neurodegenerative disease by aggregating extracellularly within the central nervous system to form plaques known ...
*  MicroRNA
Viral microRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression of viral and/or host genes to benefit the virus. ... Insull W (January 2009). "The pathology of atherosclerosis: plaque development and plaque responses to medical treatment". The ... A novel miRNA-profiling-based screening assay for the detection of early-stage colorectal cancer is undergoing a clinical trial ... Other common prefixes include 'v' for viral (miRNA encoded by a viral genome) and 'd' for Drosophila miRNA (a fruit fly ...