Loading...
*  Viremia
Usually secondary viremia results in higher viral shedding and viral loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that ... Viral replication then leads to viremia and the virus spreads to its secondary site of infection, the central nervous system ( ... 3.3.co;2-3. Lodmell DL, Dimcheff DE, Ewalt LC (Mar 2006). "Viral RNA in the bloodstream suggests viremia occurs in clinically ... Passive viremia is the introduction of viruses in the bloodstream without the need of active viral replication. Examples ...
*  Viral load
... , also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a ... Changes in viral load are usually reported as a log change (in powers of 10). For example, a three log increase in viral load ( ... A higher viral burden, titre, or viral load often correlates with the severity of an active viral infection. The quantity of ... which is converted to a viral count. EDTA plasma is the best source of cell-free viral RNA for RNA-based viral load testing. ...
*  Viral load monitoring for HIV
Viral load in blood corresponds imperfectly to viral load in other parts of the body. Individuals with undetectable viral loads ... Viral load monitoring for HIV is the regular measurement of the viral load of individual HIV-positive people as part of their ... A count of the viral load is routine before the start of HIV treatment. Various viral load tests might be used. One way to ... A count of the viral load is routine before the start of HIV treatment. If the treatment is not changed, then viral load is ...
*  Management of HIV/AIDS
Untreated mothers with a viral load >100,000 copies/ml have a transmission risk of over 50%. The risk when viral loads are < ... or baseline viral load, reduce the mutation rate of the virus, and reduce the size of the viral reservoir (See section below on ... Since viral loads are usually very high during acute infection, this period carries an estimated 26 times higher risk of ... This has been shown to lead to dramatically reduced transmission of HIV when one partner with a suppressed viral load (. 70) ...
*  Orthohantavirus
Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is found in North, Central and South ... The lipid bilayer of the viral envelope is about five nm thick and is embedded with viral surface proteins to which sugar ... These factories then facilitate transcription and subsequent translation of the viral proteins. Transcription of viral genes ... The viral cause of the disease was found only weeks later and was called the Sin Nombre virus (SNV), or in Spanish, "virus sin ...
*  Hantaan River virus
Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Like Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Hantaan virus has a mortality rate of 10 to 12%. ... "The Murine Model for Hantaan virus-Induced Lethal Disease Shows Two Distinct Paths in Viral Evolutionary Trajectory with or ... "Hantaan Virus RNA Load in Patients Having Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome: Correlation With Disease Severity". Journal of ...
*  Gene therapy
All patients had stable or decreased viral load; four of the five patients had stable or increased CD4 T cell counts. All five ... Non-viral methods present certain advantages over viral methods, such as large scale production and low host immunogenicity. ... Problems with viral vectors - Viral vectors carry the risks of toxicity, inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting ... However, non-viral methods initially produced lower levels of transfection and gene expression, and thus lower therapeutic ...
*  Simeprevir
... might be discontinued depending on their viral load. For instance, if the patient's viral load is detectable (>25 ... Appropriate dosing of Simeprevir is dependent upon the patient's liver function, kidney function, viral load, and HCV genotype ... Simeprevir is a NS3/4A protease inhibitor, thus preventing viral maturation through inhibition of protein synthesis. Simeprevir ...
*  Marburg virus disease
Weidmann, M.; Hufert, F. T.; Sall, A. A. (2007). "Viral load among patients infected with Marburgvirus in Angola". Journal of ... At the time, serologic testing was negative for viral hemorrhagic fever. She was discharged on January 19, 2008. After the ... In early 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) began investigating an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever in Angola, which ... PMC 3201746 . Singh, edited by Sunit K.; Ruzek, Daniel (2014). Viral hemorrhagic fevers. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 458. ISBN ...
*  Feline coronavirus
Relationship Between Antiviral Activity and Viral Load". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research. 21 (8): 575-81. doi:10.1089 ... During the viral replication cycle, spikes proteins mature in the host cell Golgi complex with a high mannose glycosylation. ... The APN is a glycoprotein). The anti-viral effect of lactoferrin is increased by the removal of sialic acid. Mannan binding ... The colostrum and breast milk also contain: Many oligosaccharides (glycan) which are known for their anti-viral properties ...
*  HLA-A68
A*68 is associated with higher viral load in HIV. A68 may be protective against symptomatic heart disease in Chaga's ...
*  Maraviroc
"Maraviroc reduces viral load in naive patients at 48 weeks". AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 21 (9): 703-4. September 2007. PMID ... of the twice-daily maraviroc group had a viral load of less than 50 copies/mL compared with about 23% of those who received ... of participants receiving the drug twice daily achieved a viral load of less than 400 copies/mL compared with 26% of those ...
*  Human respiratory syncytial virus
Quantification of viral load can be determined by various assay tests. As the virus is ubiquitous in all parts of the world, ... Highly sensitive RT-PCR assays should be considered when testing adults, because they may have low viral loads in their ... Four of the viral genes code for intracellular proteins that are involved in genome transcription, replication, and particle ... Natural infection with HRSV induces protective immunity which wanes over time-possibly more so than other respiratory viral ...
*  Selenium yeast
2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation". Arch Intern Med. 167: 146 ... Viral infection. Findings of increased viral virulence in selenium-deficient hosts support the need for further investigation ... Beck M (2001). "Antioxidants and viral infections: Host immune response and viral pathogenicity". J Am Coll Nutr. 20: 384S-388S ... Certain viral diseases have been shown to mutate more rapidly in selenium-deficient hosts producing more virulent viruses. This ...
*  HIV/AIDS in Lesotho
Malaria is estimated to increase HIV viral load by seven to ten times. Consequently, people with malaria are at increased risk ... In 2010, WHO recommended providing ART to all pregnant women regardless of CD4 count or viral load, causing the Ministry of ... Starvation allows rapid progression of HIV by undermining the body's natural defense mechanisms and promoting viral replication ...
*  Human papillomavirus infection
Schmitt M, Depuydt C, Benoy I, Bogers J, Antoine J, Arbyn M, Pawlita M (2012). "Prevalence and viral load of 51 genital human ... However, viral early transcription subjects to viral E2 regulation and high E2 levels repress the transcription. HPV genomes ... the viral genome is transported to the nucleus by unknown mechanisms and establishes itself at a copy number of 10-200 viral ... Thus, viral genome integration into host DNA genome increases E6 and E7 expression to promote cellular proliferation and the ...
*  Tuberculosis in relation to HIV
If not on medication, a person's viral load starts to go up and the CD4 cell count begins to go down. Stage 3 of HIV infection ... People with AIDS can have a high viral load and be very infectious. See HIV HIV/TB infection is a bi-directional interaction of ...
*  Cystatin C
HIV viral load and HAART duration". Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 11 (5): 641-5. PMID 16964834. Strevens H, Wide-Swensson D, Torffvit ...
*  Scrub typhus
Acute scrub typhus appears to improve viral loads in patients with HIV. This interaction is challenged by an in vitro study. ...
*  Super-spreader
This causes their contacts to be exposed to higher viral/bacterial loads than would be seen in the contacts of non- ... This shedding rate was calculated in men with similar HIV viral loads. Once treatment for the co-infection had been completed, ... viral load, misdiagnosis, airflow dynamics, immune suppression, and co-infection with another pathogen. Although loose ...
*  Chikungunya
RT-PCR can also be used to quantify the viral load in the blood. Using RT-PCR, diagnostic results can be available in one to ... Additionally, viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ... Viral replication is highly cytopathic, but susceptible to type-I and -II interferon. In vivo, in studies using living cells, ...
*  Sharon Lewin
"Analysis of hepatitis B viral load decline under potent therapy: Complex decay profiles observed". Hepatology. 34 (5): 1012- ... Over 20 years later, this method still informs studies of residual HIV replication, HIV latency and viral reactivation. Lewin's ... an early product of viral transcription, in people receiving antiretroviral drugs. ...
*  Aflatoxin
... B1 can cause immune suppression, and exposure to it is associated with an increased viral load in HIV positive ... "Association between high aflatoxin B1 levels and high viral load in HIV-positive people". World Mycotoxin Journal. 6 (3): 255- ...
*  Zika fever
2016). "Zika virus: high infectious viral load in semen, a new sexually transmitted pathogen?". The Lancet Infectious Diseases ... "Infectious Zika viral particles in breastmilk". The Lancet. 387: 1051. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00624-3. PMID 26944028. ...
*  Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS
However, most have detectable viral load and will eventually progress to AIDS without treatment. These individuals are ... People who maintain CD4+ T cell counts and also have low or clinically undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral ... that occur after years of HIV infection and are associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. Prevalence ... A strong immune defense reduces the number of viral particles in the blood stream, marking the start of secondary or chronic ...
*  Interferon
... while the immunoproteasome processes viral peptides for loading onto the MHC I molecule, thereby increasing the recognition and ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... the discovery was a result of their studies of viral interference. Viral interference refers to the inhibition of virus growth ... They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. The effect of ...
*  Breakthrough infection
... and maternal viral load. It is possible for an individual to have breakthrough infection of HBV but be asymptomatic. As a ... The recognition of viral proteins by maternal antibodies neutralizes the virus. Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B ... Overtime, however, viruses accumulate genetic mutations which can impact the 3d structure of viral proteins. If these mutations ...