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*  Duck plague
Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ... L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". Virion DNA maturation occurs as the nucleocapids ...
*  Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2
Through this process the new capsid obtains the required six viral envelope proteins. The new virions then go into the ... ORF2a, 3, 4, 5, encode glycoprotein 2,2a, 3, 4, and 5. ORF2b encodes the envelope protein. There is a newly discovered protein ... ORF6 encodes the membrane protein. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is encoded by ORF7. The N protein is composed of 123 amino ... It has been suggested that despite the normal anti-viral role Protein Kinase R (PKR) plays in cells, type 2 PRRSV uses PKR as a ...
*  Hepatitis B vaccine
The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is now produced by yeast cells ... as these excess surface proteins lacked infectious viral DNA. The immune system, recognizing the surface proteins as foreign, ... This allows the yeast to produce only the noninfectious surface protein, without any danger of introducing actual viral DNA ... In 1968, this protein was found to be part of the virus that causes "serum hepatitis" (hepatitis B) by virologist Alfred Prince ...
*  Coronavirus packaging signal
... in the viral genome was identified that interacts with a viral envelope protein (protein M) and enables the viral RNA to be ... As part of the viral life cycle, within the infected cell, the viral genome becomes associated with viral proteins and ... Narayanan K, Makino S (2001). "Cooperation of an RNA packaging signal and a viral envelope protein in coronavirus RNA packaging ... is a conserved cis-regulatory element found in Coronavirus which has an important role in regulating the packaging of the viral ...
*  Oncovirus
In env, it is derived from the surface and transmembrane for the viral envelope protein. There is a fourth coding domain which ... HPV instead degrades p53: the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... The virion protein and progeny RNA assemble in the cytoplasm and leave the cell, whereas the other copies send translated viral ...
*  Pseudotyping
... is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The ... With this method, the foreign viral envelope proteins can be used to alter host tropism or an increased/decreased stability of ... Pseudotyped particles do not carry the genetic material to produce additional viral envelope proteins, so the phenotypic ... A frequently used protein is the glycoprotein G of the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), short VSV-G. These envelope proteins ...
*  Avian paramyxovirus 2
... form the inner layer of the envelope and interacts with the F and Hn proteins on the outside of the viral envelope during viral ... The M protein interacts with the Hn and F proteins, helping to incorporate these proteins into viral particles for release. It ... The fusion protein (F) is an integral membrane protein, sharing many features similar to other viral fusion proteins and is ... In contrast to producing viral mRNA for viral protein synthesis, when replicating the viral genome, the polymerase does not ...
*  Alice S. Huang
Pseudotyping is combining a virus or a part of a virus (vector) with a foreign viral envelope protein. Doing this alters their ... DIPs are composed of viral structural proteins and sets of DNA or RNA which are incomplete. These DIPs will interfere in ... Alice Huang, 1. Huang, A.; Baltimore, D. (1970). "Defective Viral Particles and Viral Disease Processes". Nature. 226 (5243): ... At the time, biologists knew the central dogma to be DNA to RNA to protein, with DNA replication as the way to replicate ones ...
*  Rubella virus
... of 6 nm composed of the viral envelope proteins E1 and E2 embedded in the membrane. Inside the lipid envelope is a capsid of 40 ... At the neutral pH outside of the cell the E2 envelope protein covers the E1 protein. The dropping pH inside the endosome frees ... Both envelope proteins E1 and E2 are glycosylated. There are three sites that are highly conserved in togaviruses: a stem-and- ... The sequences for the structural proteins are first replicated by the viral RNA polymerase (Replicase) via a complementary (-) ...
*  CD4
HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known as gp120. The binding ... Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen ... Following a structural change in another viral protein (gp41), HIV inserts a fusion peptide into the host cell that allows the ... If a patient's viral load becomes undetectable after 2 years then CD4 counts might not be needed if they are consistently above ...
*  Pestivirus
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ... Pestivirus viruses have a single strand of positive-sense RNA (i.e. RNA which can be directly translated into viral proteins) ... Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Viruses in ... Translation takes place by viral initiation. The virus exits the host cell by budding. Mammals serve as the natural host. ...
*  Hepacivirus
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ... Like HCV it is transmitted by the blood-borne route and similar to HCV it is associated with the viral hepatitis. However GBV-B ... Translation takes place by viral initiation. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are sexual, blood, and ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Smith DB, ...
*  Flavivirus
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin- ... In general, the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 7 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B ... This protein also encodes a 2′-O methyltransferase. Once translated, the polyprotein is cleaved by a combination of viral and ... The virus encodes these activities in its non-structural proteins. The NS3 protein encodes a RNA triphosphatase within its ...
*  Flaviviridae
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host ... into structural and non-structural proteins. Among the non-structural protein products (NS), the locations and sequences of NS3 ... Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Unclassified Other ... Translation takes place by viral initiation. The virus exits the host cell by budding. Humans and mammals serve as the natural ...
*  Syncytium
Typically, the viral families that can cause syncytium are enveloped because viral envelope proteins on the surface of the host ... HIV infects CD4+ T cells and makes the cell produce viral proteins, including fusion proteins. Then, the cell begins to display ... During infection, viral fusion proteins used by the virus to enter the cell are transported to the cell surface, where they can ... But, certain members of the Reoviridae family are notable exceptions due to a unique set of proteins known as fusion-associated ...
*  Vectors in gene therapy
... many vectors have been developed in which the endogenous viral envelope proteins have been replaced by either envelope proteins ... For example, the viral structural proteins can be expressed from a different genetic element than the viral genome. The Herpes ... as well as with the specific protein receptor that either induces entry-promoting structural changes in the viral protein, or ... The envelope proteins on each of these viruses bind to cell-surface molecules such as heparin sulfate, which localizes them ...
*  HIV vaccine
... successful in the control of various viral diseases by priming the adaptive immunity to recognize the viral envelope proteins ... Most initial approaches have focused on the HIV envelope protein. At least thirteen different gp120 and gp160 envelope ... The epitopes of the viral envelope are more variable than those of many other viruses. Furthermore, the functionally important ... Biosantech has developed a novel vaccine called Tat Oyi, which aims at the tat protein. It is reported that the company's HIV ...
*  Visna virus
Rev is required for expression of unspliced or partially spliced mRNA coding for the viral envelope protein, including gag and ... The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most enigmatic of the proteins of the visna virus. Most studies ... envelope protein). The genome also encodes two regulatory proteins, tat (trans-activator of transcription) and rev (regulator ... of their glycosylated envelope protein with a cellular receptor on the cell's plasma membrane facilitating fusion of the viral ...
*  Entebbe bat virus
... the proteins rotate to form trimers, and the fusion peptide is directed toward the cell membrane The viral envelope protein E ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ... The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ...
*  Virus
Attachment to the receptor can induce the viral envelope protein to undergo changes that results in the fusion of viral and ... viral protein synthesis, possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory ... Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... thus gaining an outer lipid bilayer known as a viral envelope. This membrane is studded with proteins coded for by the viral ...
*  Antisense therapy
... modified with an RNA antisense strand to the HIV viral envelope protein, and re-infused into the patient during a planned lapse ... These drugs, AVI-6002 and AVI-6003 are novel analogs based on AVI's PMO antisense chemistry in which anti-viral potency is ... In February 2010 researchers reported success in reducing HIV viral load using patient T-cells which had been harvested, ...
*  RTS,S
... of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite and a viral envelope protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg), to which was added ... RTS,S/AS01 - trade name Mosquirix - is a recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine. Approved for use by European regulators in ... S vaccine was engineered using genes from the repeat and T-cell epitope in the pre-erythrocytic circumsporozoite protein (CSP) ... Identification of Surface-Exposed Proteins and Demonstration of Glycosylation on CSP and TRAP by Mass Spectrometry-Based ...
*  Envelope glycoprotein GP120
Continuing evolutionary adaptation is required for the viral envelope protein to maintain fitness relative to the continuing ... which prevents viral entry by binding to the viral envelope gp120 and interfering with virus attachment to the host CD4 ... The HIV viral protein gp120 induces apoptosis of neuronal cells by inhibiting levels of furin and tissue plasminogen activator ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Price TO, Ercal N, Nakaoke R, Banks WA (May 2005). "HIV-1 viral proteins gp120 ...
*  Viral matrix protein
Structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. They play a crucial role in virus assembly, and interact ... Viral matrix proteins, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... In herpesviruses, the viral matrix is usually called viral tegument and contains many proteins involved in viral entry, early ... An example is the M1 protein of the influenza virus, showing affinity to the glycoproteins inserted in the host cell membrane ...
*  Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
In these cells the viral genes that encode envelope proteins have restricted expression. As a result, infectious particles like ... Should the viral progression be diagnosed during stage 1 (even during late stage 1 when stage 2 symptoms start to manifest ... the M protein are not produced, and the virus is able to survive persistently without evoking an immune response. Eventually ...
*  Gammapapillomavirus
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...