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*  Vesicular monoamine transporter
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of ... Accessed 20 April 2013] Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... VMAT uses the same transport mechanism for all types of monoamines. VMATs transport monoamines from the cytosol into high- ... 2006). "Regulation of vesicular monoamine and glutamate transporters by vesicle-associated trimeric G-proteins: new jobs for ...
*  History of catecholamine research
... and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) with two isoforms. Transporters and intracellular enzymes such as monoamine ... With the advent of molecular genetics, the three transport mechanisms have been traced to the proteins and their genes since ... I. Demonstration of monoamines in the cell bodies of brain stem neurons". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 62, suppl. 247: 1-55 ... It was later named monoamine oxidase. This seemed to clarify the fate of the catecholamines in the body, but in 1956 Blaschko ...
*  Vesicular monoamine transporter 2
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene. VMAT2 is an integral membrane protein that transports monoamines- ... Little KY, Krolewski DM, Zhang L, Cassin BJ (January 2003). "Loss of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter protein (VMAT2) ... by simultaneously reversing the direction of transport through the primary plasma membrane transport proteins for monoamines (i ... Play media The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) ...
*  Catecholamines up
... and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT) in Drosophila melanogaster. Catsup plays a significant role in zinc ion ... transmembrane transport, and the mutations in Catsup gene can lead to abnormal accumulation of membrane proteins, such as Notch ... and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT) enzyme activity. Various molecular polymorphisms of Catsup are associated with ... Catsup encoded protein is composed of seven predicted transmembrane domains and Catsup co-localizes with enzymes TH and VMAT to ...
*  Reuptake inhibitor
... is an irreversible inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), and is a prototypical example of a vesicular ... With vesicular transport blocked, neurotransmitter stores quickly become depleted. Reserpine (Serpasil) ... which exerts its effects by causing conformational changes in the transporter protein and thereby modulating the affinity of ... triethylcholine Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) inhibitor - vesamicol Vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) ...
*  Vesicular monoamine transporter 1
SLC18A1 is an isoform of the vesicular monoamine transporter. The idea that there must be specific transport proteins ... This transport is facilitated via proton gradient generated by the protein proton ATPase. The inward transport of the monoamine ... Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 ... The active transport of monoamines from the cytosol into storage vesicles operates against a large (>105) concentration ...
*  God gene
In the brain, VMAT2 proteins are located on synaptic vesicles. VMAT2 transports monoamine neurotransmitters from the cytosol of ... VMAT2 codes for a vesicular monoamine transporter that plays a key role in regulating the levels of the brain chemicals ... called vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), predisposes humans towards spiritual or mystic experiences. The idea has been ... These monoamine transmitters are in turn postulated to play an important role in regulating the brain activities associated ...
*  Monoamine neurotransmitter
3-Iodothyronamine Tryptamine Specific transporter proteins called monoamine transporters that transport monoamines in or out of ... In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine ... Monoamine receptor Monoamine oxidase Monoamine transporter Monoamine Hypothesis Biogenic amine Trace amine Monoamine nuclei ... "A glial variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter is required to store histamine in the Drosophila visual system". PLoS ...
*  Monoamine releasing agent
Once inside the presynaptic neuron, they may inhibit the reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters through vesicular monoamine ... these transporters transport monoamines in reverse (i.e., they move monoamines from the neuronal cytoplasm into the synaptic ... which triggers a phosphorylation cascade via protein kinases that results in the phosphorylation of monoamine transporters ... A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine ...
*  Amphetamine
In addition to the neuronal monoamine transporters, amphetamine also inhibits both vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and ... Upon entering the presynaptic neuron, amphetamine activates TAAR1 which, through protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C ( ... "The role of zinc ions in reverse transport mediated by monoamine transporters". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (24): 21505-21513. doi: ... Amphetamine is also a substrate for the presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2. Following amphetamine uptake at ...
*  Norepinephrine
After synthesis, norepinephrine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter ( ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and, as such, are provided by ingestion of protein-containing food, with ... The initial step in the breakdown can be catalyzed by either of the enzymes monoamine oxidase (mainly monoamine oxidase A) or ... amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine ...
*  Shimon Schuldiner
His work on the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT), elucidating its mechanism of action, is essential for the development ... He has made important contributions to the understanding of proteins that couple the movement of ions and other molecules ... USA 73, 1892-1896 Schuldiner, S., and Kaback, H. R. (1975) Membrane Potential and Active Transport in Membrane Vesicles from ... Identification of Molecular Hinge Points Mediating Alternating Access in the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter VMAT2. Proceedings ...
*  Membrane transport protein
Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2.B: Nonribosomally synthesized porters, such as ... Translocase Vesicular transport protein Membrane transport proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Often these redox proteins are not considered transport proteins. Each carrier protein, even within the same cell membrane, is ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ...
*  Solute carrier family 10 member 4
... a putative organic anion transport protein". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (42): 6797-805. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i42.6797 ... In mice, it appears to promote acidification of synaptic vesicles containing monoamines, enhancing their uptake, and is co- ... "SLC10A4 is a vesicular amine-associated transporter modulating dopamine homeostasis". Biological Psychiatry. 77 (6): 526-36. ... Solute carrier family 10 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC10A4 gene. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
... vesicular monoamine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.750.625 -- vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH D12.776. ... vesicular monoamine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.887.625 -- vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH ... vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.750.625.750 -- vesicular glutamate transport protein 2 MeSH ... vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.887.625.750 -- vesicular glutamate transport protein 2 ...
*  Solute carrier family
... an integral membrane protein that transports a solute). The SLC group include examples of transport proteins that are: ... amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine ... fatty acid transport proteins(SLC27A1, SLC27A2, SLC27A3, SLC27A4, SLC27A5, SLC27A6) (28) Na+-coupled nucleoside transport( ... The solute carrier (SLC) group of membrane transport proteins include over 400 members organized into 52 families. Most members ...
*  Valbenazine
It acts as a vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor. Valbenazine is used to treat tardive dyskinesia in adults. ... a selective monoamine transport inhibitor for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo- ... Plasma protein binding of valbenazine is over 99%, and that of DTBZ is about 64%. The biological half-life of both valbenazine ... is known to cause reversible reduction of dopamine release by selectively inhibiting pre-synaptic human vesicular monoamine ...
*  Cocaine intoxication
Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate ... Individuals with cocaine overdose should be transported immediately to the nearest emergency department, preferably by ... Monoamines accumulate in the synaptic cleft resulting in enhanced and prolonged sympathetic effects. Cocaine's acute effect in ... This drug binds and blocks monoamine (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) re-uptake transporters with equal ...
*  Amino acid transporter
An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine ... Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... vesicular glutamate transporter (18) vesicular amine transporter (25) some mitochondrial carriers (26) multifunctional anion ...
*  Methamphetamine
... and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting in the internalization or reverse function of monoamine transporters ... methamphetamine inhibits uptake and induces efflux of neurotransmitters and other substrates at the vesicular monoamine ... production and either completely inhibits or reverses the transport direction of the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine ... In neurons, methamphetamine induces monoamine neurotransmitter efflux through VMAT2, resulting in the outflow of monoamines ...
*  Dopamine
After synthesis, dopamine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by a solute carrier-a vesicular monoamine ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are readily available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. ... amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine ... Both isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B, effectively metabolize dopamine. Different breakdown pathways exist but ...
*  Reverse transport
... by triggering reverse transport at vesicular monoamine transporters (specifically, VMAT1 and VMAT2) and other monoamine ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ... Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which ... For example, many monoamine releasing agents cause monoamine neurotransmitter efflux (i.e., the release of monoamine ...
*  SLC22A2
"Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and ... 2004). "Norepinephrine transporter (NET), serotonin transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and organic ... The encoded protein contains twelve putative transmembrane domains and is a plasma integral membrane protein. It is found ... Liu YZ, Latchman DS (1997). "The octamer-binding proteins Oct-1 and Oct-2 repress the HIV long terminal repeat promoter and its ...
*  Neurotransmitter sodium symporter
High affinity transport proteins found in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals and glial cells are responsible ... these being transporters for monoamines, the amino acids proline and glycine, GABA, and a group of orphan transporters. ... both of these transporter families are distinct from the vesicular neurotransmitter transporters. Sequence analysis of the Na+/ ... The majority of the transporters constitute an extensive family of homologous proteins that derive energy from the co-transport ...
*  Adderall
... to either stop transporting monoamines altogether (via transporter internalization) or transport monoamines out of the neuron; ... and interact with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), with dextroamphetamine being the more potent agonist of TAAR1. ... Transcription factors are proteins that increase or decrease the expression of specific genes. In simpler terms, this necessary ... and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in neurons. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent CNS stimulant than levoamphetamine ...
*  Lipid signaling
Transferring to the GSL synthesis site is done with the help of a transport protein known as four phosphate adaptor protein 2 ( ... Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine ... C1P also has known roles in vesicular trafficking, cell survival, phagocytosis ("cell eating") and macrophage degranulation. ... 2007). "Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein". J. ...