*Glutamate receptor

Glutamate transporters (EAATs), which use the Na+/K+ gradient, reverse glutamate transport (efflux) in affected neurons and ... Glutamate binding to the extracellular region of an mGluR causes G proteins bound to the intracellular region to be ... In addition, density of immunohistochemically labeled glutamatergic terminals with an antibody against the vesicular glutamate ... Proximal glial cells use a cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) to transport cystine into the cell and glutamate out. Excessive ...

*Synaptic vesicle

Vesicular glutamate transporters, for example, sequester glutamate into vesicles by this process. Trafficking proteins are more ... and trafficking proteins that participate in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling. Transport proteins are ... They include intrinsic membrane proteins, peripherally bound proteins, and proteins such as SNAREs. These proteins do not share ... Many but not all of the known synaptic vesicle proteins interact with non-vesicular proteins and are linked to specific ...

*SLC17A8

This gene encodes a vesicular glutamate transporter. The encoded protein transports the neurotransmitter glutamate into ... Solute carrier family 17 member 8 (SLC17A8) also known as the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) is a protein that in ... 2007). "Docking and homology modeling explain inhibition of the human vesicular glutamate transporters". Protein Sci. 16 (9): ... 2006). "Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in rat and human retina". Brain Res. 1082 (1): 73-85. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Vesicular glutamate transporter 1

It is preferentially associated with the membranes of synaptic vesicles and functions in glutamate transport. The protein ... 2007). "Docking and homology modeling explain inhibition of the human vesicular glutamate transporters". Protein Sci. 16 (9): ... Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC17A7 gene. The protein encoded by ... Takamori S, Rhee JS, Rosenmund C, Jahn R (2000). "Identification of a vesicular glutamate transporter that defines a ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.887.625.500 -- vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH ... vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.750.625.500 -- vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH ... vesicular glutamate transport protein 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.750.750 -- vesicular inhibitory amino acid transport proteins ... vesicular glutamate transport protein 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.887.750 -- vesicular inhibitory amino acid transport ...

*Glutamate decarboxylase

... synthesis and vesicular GABA transport into synaptic vesicles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Wu JY (May 2004). "Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 ... Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Higher glutamate levels activate microglia and activation of xc(−) increases the extracellular glutamate release. Peripheral ...

*Amino acid transporter

An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... vesicular glutamate transporter (18) vesicular amine transporter (25) some mitochondrial carriers (26) multifunctional anion ... Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter Is Present in Glucagon-Containing Secretory Granules in {alpha}TC6 Cells, Mouse ...

*Glutamate transporter

... that is encoded by the SLC17A8 gene is a member of the vesicular glutamate transporter family that transports glutamate into ... Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate - the principal excitatory ... Also unlike EAATs, they do not appear to transport aspartate. VGluT3 (Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 3) ... This process is named the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Three types of vesicular glutamate transporters are known, VGLUTs 1-3 ( ...

*Neurotransmitter transporter

Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) GABA transporters, including: GABA ... Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons. Their ... Vesicular transporters rely on a proton gradient created by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in order to carry ... For example, some transporters use energy obtained by the cotransport, or symport, of Na+ in order to move glutamate across ...

*Neurotransmitter sodium symporter

High affinity transport proteins found in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals and glial cells are responsible ... The latter couple glutamate and aspartate uptake to the cotransport of Na+ and the counter-transport of K+, with no apparent ... dependence on Cl−. In addition, both of these transporter families are distinct from the vesicular neurotransmitter ... The majority of the transporters constitute an extensive family of homologous proteins that derive energy from the co-transport ...

*Reuptake inhibitor

With vesicular transport blocked, neurotransmitter stores quickly become depleted. Reserpine (Serpasil) is an irreversible ... West AR, Galloway MP (1997). "Inhibition of glutamate reuptake potentiates endogenous nitric oxide-facilitated dopamine efflux ... which exerts its effects by causing conformational changes in the transporter protein and thereby modulating the affinity of ... A second type of reuptake inhibition affects vesicular transport, and blocks the intracellular repackaging of neurotransmitters ...

*Methamphetamine

... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ... Because neither of these agonists alone can open this ion channel, glutamate and glycine are referred to as coagonists of the ... production and either completely inhibits or reverses the transport direction of the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine ... methamphetamine inhibits uptake and induces efflux of neurotransmitters and other substrates at the vesicular monoamine ...

*Amphetamine

DHK-sensitive, EAAT2 uptake was not altered by AMPH (Figure 1A). The remaining glutamate transport in these midbrain cultures ... Upon entering the presynaptic neuron, amphetamine activates TAAR1 which, through protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C ( ... VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... This increase in extracellular glutamate presumably occurs via the amphetamine-induced internalization of EAAT3, a glutamate ...

*Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

... protein will associate with proteins SMCR8 and WDR41 and this behaves as the Rab GDP-GTP exchange factor in vesicular transport ... glutamate excitotoxicity caused by reduced astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2; (2) abnormalities of mitochondria in which ... Mutations in the C9ORF72 gene lead to inhibition of the formation of the C9ORF72 protein preventing the active transport of the ... Since the TBK1 protein is haploinsufficient, meaning mutations in the gene result in no protein production. This results in no ...

*Solute carrier family

... an integral membrane protein that transports a solute). The SLC group include examples of transport proteins that are: ... vesicular glutamate transporter(SLC17A1, SLC17A2, SLC17A3, SLC17A4, SLC17A5, SLC17A6, SLC17A7, SLC17A8, SLC17A9) (18) vesicular ... fatty acid transport proteins(SLC27A1, SLC27A2, SLC27A3, SLC27A4, SLC27A5, SLC27A6) (28) Na+-coupled nucleoside transport( ... The solute carrier (SLC) group of membrane transport proteins include over 400 members organized into 52 families. Most members ...

*RAB11FIP5

... aids in this sorting process by binding to kinesin II and forming a protein complex to regulate vesicular trafficking ... This process involves the transport of cargo proteins, like endocytosed receptors, to endosome recycling complexes and ... Studies have suggested that Rab11FIP5 is involved in regulating the localization of the postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate ... Rab11 family-interacting protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB11FIP5 gene. RAB11FIP5 has been shown to ...

*Reverse transport

... , or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ... Kasatkina LA, Borisova TA (November 2013). "Glutamate release from platelets: exocytosis versus glutamate transporter reversal ... by triggering reverse transport at vesicular monoamine transporters (specifically, VMAT1 and VMAT2) and other monoamine ... Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which ...

*Major facilitator superfamily

... amino acids and oxyanions were all transported by MFS family members. These protein energetically drive transport utilizing the ... "Impairment of SLC17A8 encoding vesicular glutamate transporter-3, VGLUT3, underlies nonsyndromic deafness DFNA25 and inner hair ... Maiden MC, Davis EO, Baldwin SA, Moore DC, Henderson PJ (Feb 12-18, 1987). "Mammalian and bacterial sugar transport proteins ... The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is a superfamily of membrane transport proteins that facilitate movement of small ...

*Synaptic fatigue

... re-uptake begins which is the process of transport proteins clearing out the neurotransmitters from the synapse and recycling ... It then must retrieve vesicular membrane from other sites which could take up to tens of seconds. The second model tries to ... These glutamate autoreceptors are able to inhibit synaptic fatigue in order to prevent the detrimental physiological ... Metabotropic glutamate autoreceptor activation in these neurons may inhibit synaptic transmission by inhibiting calcium influx ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter

The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of ... 2006). "Regulation of vesicular monoamine and glutamate transporters by vesicle-associated trimeric G-proteins: new jobs for ... Liu Y, Edwards RH (1997). "The role of vesicular transport proteins in synaptic transmission and neural degeneration". Annu. ... Accessed 20 April 2013] Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ...

*Substantia nigra

Calbindin is a protein involved in calcium ion transport within cells, and excess calcium in cells is toxic. The calbindin ... In addition, amphetamine and trace amines are substrates for the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter, vesicular monoamine ... Increased NMDA receptors may point to the involvement of glutamate-dopamine interactions in schizophrenia. Dysbindin, which has ... Most of this plasticity occurs at the neurochemical level; dopamine transport systems are slowed, allowing dopamine to linger ...

*RTX toxin

In each case, the tolC gene is located outside the rtx operon and encodes a conserved multifunctional protein. During transport ... Osicková, A.; Osicka, R.; Maier, E.; Benz, R.; Sebo, P. (1999-12-31). "An amphipathic alpha-helix including glutamates 509 and ... Aldick, Thomas; Bielaszewska, Martina; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Karch, Helge (2009). "Vesicular ... The cyaA operon encodes the five proteins CyaA (RTX toxin), CyaC (CyaA activation protein), and the three T1SS proteins: CyaB ( ...

*Neurotoxin

This is important as neurotransmitter transport can be impaired through vesicular transport inhibition, resulting in diminished ... It is known that the mercuric ion inhibits amino acid (AA) and glutamate (Glu) transport, potentially leading to excitotoxic ... It is this intracellular calcium increase that activates protein kinase C (PKC), which manifests as learning deficits in ... Brookes, N (1988). "Specificity and Reversibility of the Inhibition by HgCl of Glutamate Transport in Astrocyte Cultures". ...

*Chromosome 11 (human)

... encoding protein Solute carrier family 17 (vesicular glutamate transporter), member 6 SMPD1: sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 ... intraflagellar transport protein 46 homolog INS: insulin gene KDM2A: lysine demethylase 2A KIAA1549L encoding protein KIAA1549- ... encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C11orf16 C11orf49: encoding protein UPF0705 protein C11orf49 C11orf52 encoding protein ... encoding protein C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 5 CAPRIN1: encoding protein, cell cycle associated protein 1 ...

*Disc shedding

... by incorporating proteins and lipids that are synthesized and transported from the inner segment. Discs mature along with their ... Chuang, J., Zhao, Y., & Sung, C. (2007). "SARA-regulated vesicular targeting underlies formation of the light sensing organelle ... Circadian rhythms that use neuromodulators such as adenosine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and melatonin, rhythmically ... The protein is co-translationally glycosylated and the protein's carbohydrates are modified in the Golgi, before transfer to ...

*NMDA receptor

The NMDA receptor is a glutamate and ion channel protein receptor that is activated when glycine and glutamate bind to it. The ... "Lead Exposure during Synaptogenesis Alters Vesicular Proteins and Impairs Vesicular Release: Potential Role of NMDA Receptor- ... This information is then transported to the nucleus. Phosphorylation of Jacob does not take place with extrasynaptic NMDA ... endogenous glutamate site agonist Glutamic acid (glutamate) - endogenous glutamate site agonist Glycine - endogenous glycine ...