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*  Cleft lip and cleft palate
Some speech problems result directly from anatomical differences such as velopharyngeal inadequacy. Velopharyngeal inadequacy ... Sloan GM (2000). "Posterior pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty: the state of the art". Cleft Palate Craniofac. J. 37 ... Hill JS (2001). "Velopharyngeal insufficiency: An update on diagnostic and surgical techniques". Current Opinion in ... Approximately 20-25% only require one palatal surgery to achieve a competent velopharyngeal valve capable of producing normal, ...
*  Hypernasal speech
It is caused by an open nasal cavity resulting from an incomplete closure of the soft palate and/or velopharyngeal sphincter.[ ... velopharyngeal insufficiency, velopharyngeal inadequacy, and velopharyngeal mislearning. Velopharyngeal insufficiency can be ... The movements of the soft palate and the uvula are made possible by the velopharyngeal sphincter.[clarification needed] During ... The Eustachian tube, which opens near the velopharyngeal sphincter, connects the middle ear and nasal pharynx. Normally, the ...
*  Lujan-Fryns syndrome
... a sometimes congenital aberration in which the velopharyngeal sphincter allows too much air into the nasal cavity during speech ... Warren, D. W.; Dalston, R. M.; Mayo, R. (Jul 1994). "Hypernasality and velopharyngeal impairment". The Cleft Palate- ... Willging, J. P. (Oct 1999). "Velopharyngeal insufficiency". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 49 Suppl 1 ... Hypernasal speech, or "hypernasality", is primarily the result of velopharyngeal insufficiency, ...
*  Velopharyngeal inadequacy
Velopharyngeal insufficiency: The inability of the velopharyngeal sphincter to sufficiently separate the nasal cavity from the ... Velopharyngeal inadequacy (VPI) is a malfunction of a velopharyngeal mechanism. The velopharyngeal mechanism is responsible for ... Velopharyngeal inadequacy is the generic term most often used to describe the functionality of the velopharyngeal valve. A ... Velopharyngeal incompetency occurs when the soft palate and the lateral/posterior pharyngeal walls fail to separate the oral ...
*  Velopharyngeal insufficiency
Pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty seem to be safe and reliable procedures for treating velopharyngeal dysfunction. ... Pharyngeal flap versus sphincter pharyngoplasty for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency: A meta-analysis. J Plast ... Velopharyngeal surgery: A prospective randomised study of Pharyngeal Flaps and Sphincter Pharyngoplasties.Plast Reconstr Surg ... An outcome evaluation of sphincter pharyngoplasty for management of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003. ...
*  Estill Voice Training
Twang quality may be nasalized or oral, as differentiated by an open or closed velopharyngeal port. Estill suggests setting the ... The key to twang quality is a narrowing of the epilarynx via a narrowing or constriction of the aryepiglottic sphincter. Twang ... partially closing and completely closing the velopharyngeal port to control the degree of nasality in the voice. Dinah Harris ... the ability to control twang in the voice through conscious anteroposterior narrowing of the aryepiglottic sphincter in the ...
*  Karl Wilhelm Ernst Joachim Schönborn
Schönborn is remembered for his surgical work involving velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), commonly referred to as cleft ... Posterior Pharyngeal Flap and Sphincter Pharyngoplasty. ...
*  Obstructive sleep apnea
Sloan GM (March 2000). "Posterior pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty: the state of the art". Cleft Palate Craniofac. ... be most frequently associated with pharyngeal flap surgery as compared to other procedures for the treatment of velopharyngeal ... sleep apnea syndrome in children with cleft palate following Furlow palatoplasty or pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal ...