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*  DNA vaccination
A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. DNA vaccines elicit the best immune response ... Particles 300 nm in diameter appear to be most efficient for uptake by antigen presenting cells. Recombinant alphavirus-based ... Second generation vaccines were developed to reduce the risks from live vaccines. These are subunit vaccines, consisting of ... First generation vaccines are whole-organism vaccines - either live and weakened, or killed forms. Live, attenuated vaccines, ...
*  Epstein-Barr virus vaccine
... virus-like particles) based EBV vaccines are subject of intensive research. One challenge is that the Epstein-Barr virus ... A vaccine against Epstein-Barr virus is not yet available. The virus establishes persistent/latent infection and causes ... June 2007). "Phase I/II studies to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant gp350 Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in ... and efficacy of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy young adults". J. Infect. Dis. 196 (12): 1749-53. doi:10.1086/523813. ...
*  Ruth Arnon
Arnon, R; Ben-Yedidia, T (2009). "Preclinical efficacy of a virus-like particle-based vaccine against avian influenza H5N1". ... In a 2009 paper, Arnon speaks of research using virus-like particles (VLP) to induce an immune response. These particles cannot ... Arnon and Ben-Yedidia hypothesize that these vaccines would be effective against H5N1, a pandemic virus more commonly known as ... Therefore, a vaccine could introduce VLPs to an individuals immune system and bring about the production of memory cells. ...
*  Virus-like particle
"Preclinical and Clinical Development of Plant-Made Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Avian H5N1 Influenza". PLoS ONE. 5 (12 ... Virus-like particles resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral genetic material. The expression of ... "Ebola Virus-like Particles Prevent Lethal Ebola Virus Infection" (PDF). United States Army Medical Research Institute of ... More recently, VLPs were used to develop a pre-clinical vaccine against chikungunya virus. Research suggests that VLP vaccines ...
*  Xiamen Innovax Biotech
L1 virus-like particle vaccine". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 52 (3): 218-23. doi:10.4161/hv.26846. PMID 4185883. " ... In October 2012, Xiamen Innovax Biotech created the HEV 239 vaccine to treat Hepatitis E. The vaccine was approved by the ... National authorities may however, decide to use the vaccine based on the local epidemiology. "First hepatitis E vaccine hits ... a Genital Warts Vaccine that is under a phase II clinical trial, as well as a 9-valent HPV vaccine which is currently in the ...
*  Hepatitis C vaccine
Likely, vaccines following the first approved vaccine will address other genotypes by prevalence. VLP (virus-like particles) ... "The Rationale for a Preventative HCV Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccine". europepmc.org. 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-12-26. Chen ... A hepatitis C vaccine, a vaccine capable of protecting against hepatitis C, is not available. Although vaccines exist for ... No vaccine is currently available, but several vaccines are currently under development. Most vaccines work through inducing an ...
*  PCSK9
A vaccine that targets PCSK9 has been developed to treat high LDL-particle concentrations. The vaccine uses a VLP (virus-like ... "A cholesterol-lowering VLP vaccine that targets PCSK9". Vaccine. 33 (43): 5747-55. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.044. PMC ... leading to lowered circulating LDL particle concentrations. Since LDL particle concentrations are a driver of cardiovascular ... LDL-particles are removed from the blood when they bind to LDLR on the surface of cells, including liver cells, and are taken ...
*  Saumitra Das
... and their teams were successful in the development of a vaccine for hepatitis C; the vaccine, a mixture of virus-like particles ... 430-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. "A novel vaccine against Hepatitis C Virus customized for the Indian population". Elsevier. 2017 ... He also coordinates the functioning of the Centre of Excellence for Research on Hepatitis C virus, a research arm of the ... Coxsackie B virus Coxsackievirus-induced cardiomyopathy India portal Biology portal Medicine portal Please see Selected ...
*  Bovine papillomavirus
... a bivalent prophylactic vaccine license in the EU in 2007 and USA in 2009) contain virus-like particles assembled from L1 ... "Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: ... vaccinia virus encoding HPV 16/18 E6E7)". Vaccine. 22 (21-22): 2722-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.01.049. PMID 15246603. ... These vaccine systems have served as models for the successful development of prophylactic vaccines against the human ...
*  HPV vaccines
The HPV vaccines are based on hollow virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled from recombinant HPV coat proteins. The virus ... Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus. Available ... The vaccine is officially called the MEL-1 vaccine but also known as the MVA-E2 vaccine. In a study it has been suggested that ... Professor Ian Frazercreator of the HPV vaccine. "Human papillomavirus vaccine - New and underused vaccines support - Types of ...
*  GeoVax
The MVA expresses the HIV virus-like-particles, but does not express GM-CSF. The regimen builds on the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine ... The novel vaccine consists of a recombinant DNA vaccine co-expressing human GM-CSF and non-infectious HIV virus-likeparticles. ... The vaccine works with a combined DNA vaccine and MVA (modified vaccinia Ankara) vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of ... and Immunogenicity Testing of DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-like Particles." The ...
*  Diane Harper
L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial ... vaccines against HPV. She has since made statements raising concerns about both vaccines, and she recommends that patients be ... "Was the HPV Vaccine Responsible for One Girl's Death?" (video). Katie. December 4, 2013. KatieCouric.com. "Should Your Son or ... Up to a third of those doses may be in refrigerators waiting to be dispensed as the autumn onslaught of vaccine messages is ...
*  Attenuated vaccine
In an attenuated vaccine, live virus particles with very low virulence are administered. They will reproduce, but very slowly. ... rotavirus vaccine, and yellow fever vaccine. Bacterial: BCG vaccine, typhoid vaccine and epidemic typhus vaccine. Viruses may ... vaccines include: Viral: measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, rubella vaccine, Live attenuated influenza vaccine (the seasonal flu ... These vaccines contrast to those produced by "killing" the virus (inactivated vaccine). Examples of "live" (example attenuated ...
*  Zika virus vaccine
As the ZPIV vaccine contains inactivated Zika particles, virus cannot replicate and cause disease in humans. U.S. Army ... A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. As Zika virus ... a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Additionally, as dengue virus is closely related to Zika virus, the vaccine ... This vaccine is based on the same technology used to develop a vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis Virus. ...
*  Cell-free protein synthesis
... and synthesis of virus-like particles for vaccines and drug therapy. One challenge associated with CFPS is the degradation of ... "Escherichia coli-based cell-free synthesis of virus-like particles". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 100 (1): 28-37. doi: ...
*  Gardasil
... but virus-like particles, which cannot reproduce in the human body. Publications of FDA and the CDC state that the vaccine has ... Pallecaros A, Vonau B (December 2007). "Human papilloma virus vaccine--more than a vaccine". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 19 (6 ... L1 virus-like particle vaccine in male and female adolescents and young adult women". Pediatrics. 118 (5): 2135-45. doi:10.1542 ... and the manufacturer Merck partly attributes this to the virus-like particles within the vaccine. General side effects of the ...
*  Chikungunya
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the USA were testing an experimental vaccine which uses virus-like particles ( ... As of 2017[update], no approved vaccines are available. A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, to develop ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... "Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine". Expert Review of Vaccines. 11 (9): 1087-1101. doi:10.1586/erv.12.84. ISSN 1476- ...
*  Spanish flu research
Journal of Virology 1918 H1N1 Virus-like Particle Vaccine Doctor Yoshihiro Kawaoka, who engineered a recreated virus to study ... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with ... Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into a ... Such mutations in avian H5N1 viruses can change virus strains from being inefficient at infecting human cells to being as ...
*  List of immunologists
... with co-inventor Ian Frazer has priority for invention of Virus-like particle and HPV vaccine Ivan Roitt James S. Tan (1927- ... Richard R. Rosenthal Louis W. Sauer (1885-1980), perfected pertussis vaccine, developed diphtheria/p daertussis/tetanus vaccine ... "for describing how MHC molecules are used by white blood cells to detect and kill virus-infected cells." 2011 Bruce Beutler( ... he also created the first vaccine for rabies 1901 Emil Adolf von Behring (1854-1917), "for his serum therapy to treat ...
*  Vaccine
... the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein,[ ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[citation needed] Some ... This phenomenon was first noted in the trivalent Sabin polio vaccine, where the amount of serotype 2 virus in the vaccine had ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.008. PMID 19515467. Liesegang TJ (August 2009). "Varicella zoster virus vaccines: effective, but ...
*  Marburg virus disease
"Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection". Vaccine. 22 (25-26): 3495-3502. doi: ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ... virus-like particle vaccine protects guinea pigs and nonhuman primates against infection with multiple Marburg viruses". Expert ...
*  Antiviral drug
Vaccines bolster the body's immune system to better attack viruses in the "complete particle" stage, outside of the organism's ... Vaccines are very effective on stable viruses, but are of limited use in treating a patient who has already been infected. They ... other viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus and adenoviruses can cause them too. Rhinoviruses also ... They traditionally consist of an attenuated (a live weakened) or inactivated (killed) version of the virus. These vaccines can ...
*  Inactivated vaccine
Whole virus vaccines use the entire virus particle, fully destroyed using heat, chemicals, or radiation. Split virus vaccines ... An inactivated vaccine (or killed vaccine) is a vaccine consisting of virus particles, bacteria, or other pathogens that have ... Salk vaccine) and influenza vaccine bacterial: typhoid vaccine, cholera vaccine, plague vaccine, and pertussis vaccine ... Inactivated vaccines are contrasted with attenuated vaccines, or "live" vaccines. The pathogen particles are destroyed and ...
*  Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
"Co-expression of HIV-1 virus-like particles and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor by GEO-D03 DNA vaccine". Human ... Iyer SS, Amara RR (2014). "DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS". Vaccines. 2 (1): 160-78. doi:10.3390/vaccines2010160. PMC 4494194 . ... GM-CSF has also been evaluated in clinical trials for its potential as a vaccine adjuvant in HIV-infected patients. The ... Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 8 (11): 1654-8. doi:10.4161/hv.21978. PMC 3601140 . PMID 23111169. ...
*  Latvian Biomedical Research and Study centre
... research of virus structural gene exploration in order to construct virus like particles that could serve as vaccines or ... virus like particles and molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases. In 2000 BMC established long term collaboration with ... At the moment BMC scientific personnel exceeds 100 and main research areas are novel vaccine development, molecular virology, ... vaccine development, genomics and proteomics, cancer biology, immunology, biotechnology, stem cell biology, structure biology ...
*  Camelpox
The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ... An inactivated vaccine is also available, but must be administered yearly to maintain protection. The Camelpox virus is ... The Orthopox virus that causes Camelpox behaves very similarly to the virus that causes Smallpox. After the virus attaches to a ... The Camelpox Virus (CMPV) that causes Camelpox is an Orthopoxvirus that is very closely related to the Variola virus that ...
*  Influenza research
... polio vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, chickenpox vaccine). In this system, viruses are grown in closed systems such as ... meaning it contains individual viral proteins rather than whole virus particles. [...] Novartis said it anticipates applying ... vaccine research is focussed on clade 1 viruses, but the clade 2 virus is antigenically distinct and a clade 1 vaccine will ... antigens in the vaccine. As a consequence, the basis of influenza vaccine manufacturing is growing massive quantities of virus ...