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*  DNA vaccination
A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. DNA vaccines elicit the best immune response ... Several DNA vaccines are available for veterinary use. Currently no DNA vaccines have been approved for human use. Research is ... DNA vaccines are third generation vaccines. They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. The ... Vector DNA HIV vaccine Alarcon JB, Waine GW, McManus DP; Waine; McManus (1999). "DNA vaccines: technology and application as ...
*  HIV vaccine
DNA, an attenuated Salmonella vector, p24, etc. Specifically, candidate vaccines that induce one or more of the following are ... Vaccine Research Center (VRC)- Information concerning Preventive HIV vaccine research studies NIAID HIV vaccine site (DAIDS) ... Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) AIDS Vaccine Advocacy ... HIV Vaccine Trials Network World AIDS Vaccine Day Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H. (2011-09-01). "Origins of HIV and the AIDS ...
*  Malaria vaccine
ISBN 0-632-05902-8. Gurunathan S, Klinman DM, Seder RA (2000). "DNA vaccines: immunology, application, and optimization". Annu ... Malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria. The only approved vaccine as of 2015 is RTS,S. It requires four ... The vaccine was shown to be less effective for infants. Three doses of vaccine plus a booster reduced the risk of clinical ... The Type 2 vaccine could be thought of as a 'travellers' vaccine', aiming to prevent all cases of clinical symptoms in ...
*  Marburg virus disease
Many candidate vaccines have been developed and tested in various animal models. Of those, the most promising ones are DNA ... DNA vaccines have entered clinical trials. Marburgviruses are highly infectious, but not very contagious. Importantly, and ... "Comparison of individual and combination DNA vaccines for B. Anthracis, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine ... "Marburg virus vaccines: Comparing classical and new approaches". Vaccine. 20 (3-4): 586-593. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00353-X ...
*  Sudhanshu Vrati
... he concentrated on the development of DNA vaccines and the details of the work has since been published as an article, DNA ... Kaushik Bharati, Sudhanshu Vrati (2013). "DNA vaccines: Getting closer to becoming a reality". Indian J Med Res. 137: 1027-8. ... "Dna encoding ovine adenovirus (oav287) and its use as a viral vector". Google Patents. 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-12. " ... Known for his studies in the fields of RNA virus replication and vaccine development, Vrati is an elected fellow of the ...
*  Zika fever
Morrison, Chris (1 August 2016). "DNA vaccines against Zika virus speed into clinical trials". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. ... As of 2016 there was no available vaccine. Development was a priority of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), but ... There is no effective vaccine. Health officials recommended that women in areas affected by the 2015-16 Zika outbreak consider ... Serological cross-reactions with closely related flaviviruses such as dengue and West Nile virus as well as vaccines to ...
*  Chagas disease
More recently, the potential of DNA vaccines for immunotherapy of acute and chronic Chagas disease is being tested by several ... "Immunotherapy of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection with DNA Vaccines in Mice". Infect Immun. 72 (1): 46-53. doi:10.1128/IAI.72.1.46- ... A Chagas vaccine (TcVac3) has been found to be effective in mice with plans for studies in dogs. It is hoped that it will be ... A vaccine has not been developed as of 2017. Early infections are treatable with the medication benznidazole or nifurtimox. ...
*  P. N. Rangarajan
"A novel vaccine formulation consisting of dna vaccine inactivated virus". Orbit. 2017. "IISc-developed rabies vaccine cleared ... Later, they improved the vaccine performance by combining the DNA-based rabies vaccine with a controlled quantity of ... 464-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. "DNA vaccines can be produced more rapidly than conventional vaccines". Pharmabiz. January 3, ... "Immune Response to DNA Combined Tissue Culture Inactivated anti-rabies Vaccine (DINARAB)". Indian Journals. 2017. "Gene ...
*  Gene gun
... s have also been used to deliver DNA vaccines. The delivery of plasmids into rat neurons through the use of a gene gun ... After the DNA-coated gold particles have been delivered to the cells, the DNA is used as a template for transcription ( ... Biolistics introduces DNA randomly into the target cells. Thus the DNA may be transformed into whatever genomes are present in ... The payload is an elemental particle of a heavy metal coated with DNA (typically plasmid DNA). This technique is often simply ...
*  HMGB1
... has been proposed as a DNA vaccine adjuvant. HMGB1 has to interact with P53. HMGB1 is an intracellular protein that can ... This nuclear protein organizes the DNA and regulates transcription. After binding, HMGB1 bends DNA, which facilitates the ... Andersson U, Erlandsson-Harris H, Yang H, Tracey KJ (2003). "HMGB1 as a DNA-binding cytokine". J. Leukoc. Biol. 72 (6): 1084-91 ... It also interacts with nucleosomes to loosen packed DNA and remodel the chromatin. Contact with core histones changes the ...
*  Gene therapy
Gothelf A, Gehl J (November 2012). "What you always needed to know about electroporation based DNA vaccines". Human Vaccines & ... The initial approach incorporated DNA into an engineered virus to deliver the DNA into a chromosome. Naked DNA approaches have ... Like the genetic material (DNA or RNA) in viruses, therapeutic DNA can be designed to simply serve as a temporary blueprint ... The two major classes are recombinant viruses (sometimes called biological nanoparticles or viral vectors) and naked DNA or DNA ...
*  Codon usage bias
Codon optimization has applications in designing synthetic genes and DNA vaccines. Several software packages are available ... Codon usage bias refers to differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons in coding DNA. A codon is a series ... Fox JM, Erill I (June 2010). "Relative codon adaptation: a generic codon bias index for prediction of gene expression". DNA Res ... Codon usage in noncoding DNA regions can therefore play a major role in RNA secondary structure and downstream protein ...
*  Anna-Lise Williamson
These vaccines are DNA vaccines and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine. In The South African Aids Vaccine Initiative ( ... Vaccine Efficiently Boosts Immune Responses to a DNA Vaccine in Mice". AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 24 (2): 207-217. ... "HIV Vaccine info-line 080 Vaccine". South Africa AIDS Initiative. Retrieved 20 May 2015. Williamson, Anna-Lise (2000). "The ... high-magnitude and multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by a DNA and modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine ...
*  Enterovirus 71
"DNA vaccine constructs against enterovirus 71 elicit immune response in mice". Genet Vaccines Ther. 5: 6. doi:10.1186/1479-0556 ... The vaccine was administered to approximately 10,000 children between the ages of 6 and 35 months. Of the placebo group, there ... "Vaccine Blocks Hand, Foot, Mouth Disease". MedPage Today. Retrieved May 30, 2013. Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun; Li, Xiu-Ling ... This can be compared to only 3 cases of HFMD and eight cases of any EV71-related illness reported in the vaccine group. ...
*  Angiomotin
A combination of DNA vaccines encoding AMOT and the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human EGF receptor 2 (Her-2 ... "A DNA vaccine targeting angiomotin inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... A DNA vaccination targeting angiomotin generated antibodies that detected AMOT on the endothelial cell surface, which inhibited ... showing DNA vaccination targeting AMOT may be used to mimic the effect of angiostatin and no toxicity or impairment of normal ...
*  Extrachromosomal DNA
Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically ... Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found ... It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA ... Mitochondrial DNA is a main source of this extrachromosomal DNA in eukaryotes. Extrachromosomal DNA is often used in research ...
*  Enzo Paoletti
... no other DNA vaccines are available for use in humans. Halstead SB, Thomas SJ (March 2011). "New Japanese encephalitis vaccines ... The efforts resulted in multiple veterinary vaccines and the development of the first DNA vaccine for humans, a single-dose ... was an Italian-American scientist who devised a strategy to produce DNA vaccines. Working with his colleague Dennis Panicali at ... the researchers were able to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. ...
*  Universal flu vaccine
Other vaccines are polypeptide based. DNA vaccines, such as VGX-3400X (aimed at multiple H5N1 strains), contain DNA fragments ( ... DNA Vaccines and Intradermal DNA Delivery Technology One of Most Cited Articles in the Journal Vaccine". October 14, 2010. " ... Influenza DNA Vaccine Clinical Trial". Reuters. Inovio Biomedical's SynCon preventive DNA vaccine receives approval in Korea ... a universal flu vaccine may use a two-step vaccination strategy - priming with a DNA-based HA vaccine followed by a second dose ...
*  Holger Lode
In particular combinations of DNA vaccines with tumor specific delivery of immunocytokine lead to important step forward to ... Immunotherapy with a posttranscriptionally modified DNA vaccine induces complete protection against metastatic neuroblastoma. ... Survivin minigene DNA vaccination is effective against neuroblastoma. Int J Cancer 2009;125:104-14. Pertl U, Wodrich H, ... is effective in this model and that this approach is synergistic with inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor vaccines. ...
*  Immunologic adjuvant
"Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF). The European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 8 May 2013. DNA Vaccines: ... In D.B. Lowrie and R.G. Whalen (editors), DNA Vaccines: Methods and Protocols, Humana Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-89603-580-5. The ... ISBN 978-0-89603-580-5. The Use of Conventional Immunologic Adjuvants in DNA Vaccine Preparations, by Shin Sasaki and Kenji ... It has been speculated that the dying cells release DNA which serves as an immune alarm. Some studies found that DNA from dying ...
*  Julianna Lisziewicz
"Exploitation of Langerhans cells for in vivo DNA vaccine delivery into the lymph nodes". Gene Therapy. 21 (6): 566-574. doi: ... This vaccine has been clinically proven, and it opens the door for more new dendritic cell-targeting vaccines to be created for ... These complementary DNA pieces can bind to the HIV viral mRNA and prevent the HIV virus from replicating itself. The use of ... The topical DermaVir vaccine is an improvement upon the ex vivo dendritic cell- based immunization that could offer a new ...
*  Vaccine
One potential advantage of DNA vaccines is that they are very easy to produce and store. As of 2015, DNA vaccination is still ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[citation needed] Some ... The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since 1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and companion diagnostic tests ... the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently ...
*  Zika virus vaccine
As of March 31, 2017 a DNA vaccine has been approved for Phase 2 clinical trials in humans. The vaccine consists of a DNA ... Based on a previous platform used to develop a West Nile virus vaccine, the DNA vaccine is designed to assemble protein ... This vaccine is based on the dengue vaccine Dengvaxia, which as been approved for use in humans. A modified mRNA vaccine ... This vaccine is based on the same technology used to develop a vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis Virus. As the ZPIV vaccine ...
*  Survivin
The DNA vaccine contained the CCL21 secretory chemokine as a way to enhance the likelihood of eliciting the immune response by ... Xiang R, Mizutani N, Luo Y, Chiodoni C, Zhou H, Mizutani M, Ba Y, Becker JC, Reisfeld RA (January 2005). "A DNA vaccine ... By using an oral DNA vaccine carried in an attenuated non-virulent form of Salmonella typhimurium, which co-encoded secretory ... performed a DNA methylation screening and identified that DNA methylation of IRAK3 plays a key role in survivin up-regulation ...
*  Peptide microarray
2008). "Phase 2 trial of a DNA vaccine encoding myelin basic protein for multiple sclerosis". Annals of Neurology. 63 (5): 611- ... Callaway, Ewen (2011). "Clues emerge to explain first successful HIV vaccine trial". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.541. Garren ... Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 17 (1): 168-75. doi:10.1128/CVI.00208-09. PMC 2812096 . PMID 19864486. Tomaras, GD; Binley, JM ... patient stratification and development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The assay principle of peptide microarrays is similar ...
*  Camelpox
The viral genetic material is contained in double stranded linear DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. The DNA ... An inactivated vaccine is also available, but must be administered yearly to maintain protection. The Camelpox virus is ... The virus carries DNA polymerase which is used to transcribe its genes. Eventually, the viral core dissolves, and the genetic ... An attenuated vaccine is currently available that provides long term protection against Camelpox if administered when the camel ...
*  Caries vaccine
DNA vaccine approaches for dental cavities have had a history of success in animal models. Dental cavity vaccines directed to ... Development of a vaccine for tooth decay has been under investigation for more than 30 years. In 1972, a caries vaccine was ... A caries vaccine is a vaccine to prevent and protect against tooth decay. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been identified ... "Panel on Caries Vaccine". National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institute of Health. January ...