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*  Dopaminergic
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors including benserazide, carbidopa, and methyldopa, which ... Tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors like metirosine, which is used in the treatment of pheochromocytoma as a sympatholytic or ... Enzymes that regulate the biosynthesis or metabolism of dopamine such as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or DOPA ... The following are examples of dopaminergic substances: Dopamine precursors including L-phenylalanine, and L-tyrosine are used ...
*  Tyrosine decarboxylase
Other names in common use include L-tyrosine decarboxylase, L-(−)-tyrosine apodecarboxylase, and L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase. This ... In enzymology, a tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase (tyramine-forming). ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } tyramine + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-tyrosine, and two products, tyramine ...
*  Synephrine
G. E. Bartley, A. P. Breksa III, and B. K. Ishida (2010). "PCR amplification and cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase involved in ... involving the enzymes tyrosine decarboxylase in the first step, tyramine N-methyltransferase in the second, and N-methyl- ... The biosynthesis of synephrine in Citrus species is believed to follow the pathway: tyrosine → tyramine → N-methyltyramine → ... synthesis to the concentration of this neurotransmitter although the classic biosynthetic route to dopamine from tyrosine is ...
*  Tyramine
Biochemically, tyramine is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine via the action of the enzyme tyrosine decarboxylase. ... In the laboratory, tyramine can be synthesized in various ways, in particular by the decarboxylation of tyrosine. Tyramine is ... In foods, it often is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine during fermentation or decay. Foods containing considerable ... doi:10.1007/s10072-007-0758-4. PMID 17508188 Tyrosine metabolism - Reference pathway, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes ( ...
*  Histidine decarboxylase
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase Tyrosine decarboxylase Decarboxylation Histamine Antihistamine Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate Mast ... Histidine decarboxylase is a group II pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase, along with aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, and ... tyrosine decarboxylase. HDC is expressed as a 74 kDa polypeptide which is not enzymatically functional. Only after post- ... Histidine decarboxylase is the sole member of the histamine synthesis pathway, producing histamine in a one-step reaction. ...
*  Mescaline
Tyrosine can either undergo a decarboxylation via tyrosine decarboxylase to generate tyramine and subsequently undergo an ... Phenylalanine serves as a precursor by first being converted to L-tyrosine by L-amino acid hydroxylase. Once converted, it ... monophenol hydroxylase or first be hydroxylated by tyrosine hydroxylase to form L-DOPA and decarboxylated by DOPA decarboxylase ... Tyrosine and phenylalanine serve as the metabolic precursors to synthesis of mescaline. ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 4)
... phosphate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.24: aminobenzoate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.25: tyrosine decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.26: deleted, ... EC 4.1.1.1: pyruvate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.2: oxalate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.3: oxaloacetate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.4: ... aspartate 1-decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.12: aspartate 4-decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.13: deleted EC 4.1.1.14: valine decarboxylase EC 4.1. ... aconitate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.7: benzoylformate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.8: oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.9: malonyl-CoA ...
*  Group II pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases
... tyrosine decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.25, which converts tyrosine into tyramine and histidine decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.22, which ... Group II includes glutamate, histidine, tyrosine, and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylases. Group I pyridoxal-dependent ... decarboxylases Group III pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases Group IV pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases Ishii S, Mizuguchi H, ... L-dopa decarboxylase or tryptophan decarboxylase) EC 4.1.1.28, which catalyses the decarboxylation of tryptophan to tryptamine ...
*  Lillian Dyck
Dyck, Lillian E. "Effect of decarboxylase inhibitors on brain p-tyrosine levels."Biochemical Pharmacology. 36:8 (April 1987): ... "Inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine aminotransferase by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine ... "The role of catecholamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine and m-tyramine in the behavioural effects of m-tyrosine in the rat." European ... "Behavioural and neurochemical effects of meta-tyrosine in the rat." Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... tyrosine decarboxylase MeSH D08.811.520.224.125.900 --- uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase MeSH D08.811.520.224.187 --- ... receptor protein-tyrosine kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.400.020 --- fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696. ... protein-tyrosine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.049 --- focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696. ... adenosylmethionine decarboxylase MeSH D08.811.520.224.125.100 --- aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase MeSH D08.811.520.224. ...
*  ProSavin
... uses Oxford BioMedica's Lentivector delivery system to transfer three genes, aromatic amino acid dopa decarboxylase, ... tyrosine hydroxylase and GTP-cyclohydrolase 1, to the striatum in the brain, reprogramming transduced cells to secrete dopamine ...
*  Meta-Tyramine
... is produced in humans via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase-mediated metabolism of meta-tyrosine. meta-Tyramine ... Substrate: m-tyrosine Product: m-tyramine + CO2 Organism: Homo sapiens Reaction diagram Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February ... "EC 4.1.1.28 - Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2016. ... 5-hydroxytryptamine and m-tyramine in the behavioural effects of m-tyrosine in the rat". European Journal of Pharmacology. 84 ( ...
*  Neuromelanin
... is directly biosynthesized from L-DOPA, precursor to dopamine, by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic acid ... decarboxylase (AADC). Alternatively, synaptic vesicles and endosomes accumulate cytosolic dopamine (via vesicular monoamine ...
*  Gentisate decarboxylase
5-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and gentisate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism. Grant DJW; ... In enzymology, a gentisate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.62) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate ...
*  5-oxopent-3-ene-1,2,5-tricarboxylate decarboxylase
6-dioate decarboxylase, and 5-oxopent-3-ene-1,2,5-tricarboxylate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism ... In enzymology, a 5-oxopent-3-ene-1,2,5-tricarboxylate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.68) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... Garrido-Pertierra A; Cooper RA (1981). "Identification and purification of distinct isomerase and decarboxylase enzymes ...
*  Sympathoadrenal system
... tyrosine hydroxylase, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. ...
*  Tyrosine hydroxylase
The product of the enzymatic reaction, L-DOPA, can be transformed to dopamine by the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase. Dopamine may be ... Tyrosine hydroxylase can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion ... As tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, tyrosine ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ...
*  Neuron
... by tyrosine hydroxlase, and levadopa is then converted into dopamine by amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonergic neurons- ... Dopamine is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is catalyzed into levadopa (or L-DOPA) ... Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase, and then further by aromatic acid decarboxylase. A lack of ... GABA is synthesized from glutamate neurotransmitters by the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase. Glutamatergic neurons-glutamate. ...
*  Vesicular monoamine transporter
Tyrosine-434 and aspartate-461 are identified as being responsible for the high-affinity interaction of TBZ, serotonin, and ... and amino acid aromatic decarboxylase (AADC) are physically and functionally coupled with VMAT2. It was initially thought that ... Studies have shown that at the synaptic membrane, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill ...
*  Bromantane
... and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) (also known as DOPA decarboxylase), key enzymes in the dopamine biosynthesis ... Vakhitova IuV, Sadovnikov SV, Iamidanov RS, Seredenin SB (2006). "[Cytosine demethylation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene ... and long-lasting upregulation in a variety of brain regions of the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) ...
*  Monoamine neurotransmitter
... tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. Monoaminergic ... synthesis to the concentration of this neurotransmitter although the classic biosynthetic route to dopamine from tyrosine is ...
*  Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
... a trace amine neuromodulator L-tyrosine to tyramine - a trace amine neuromodulator L-histidine to histamine - a ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5- ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, a class of anti-Parkinson drugs Aromatic amino acids Histidine decarboxylase PDB ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ...
*  Dopamine
L-Tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, with tetrahydrobiopterin, O2, and iron (Fe2+) as ... L-DOPA is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (also known as DOPA decarboxylase), with ... Substrate: L-phenylalanine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2 Product: L-tyrosine + 3-hydroxyphenylalanine [(aka m-tyrosine)] + ... L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → Dopamine The direct precursor of dopamine ...
*  Catecholamine
The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) converts the amino acid l-tyrosine into 3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). The ... The enzyme dopamine hydroxylase requires copper as a cofactor (not shown in the diagram) and DOPA decarboxylase requires PLP ( ... Tyrosine is created from phenylalanine by hydroxylation by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Tyrosine is also ingested ... Catecholamine synthesis is inhibited by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), which inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase.[citation needed] ...
*  Antiparkinson medication
DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors). Prevent the peripheral metabolism of levodopa by decarboxylases and hence increase its brain ... Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine. In other words ... Tyrosine L-DOPA (levodopa) COMT inhibitors. Prevent the peripheral metabolism of levodopa by COMT and hence increase its brain ... This medication should not be used when taking L-DOPA, as L-DOPA interferes with the absorption of Tyrosine. Apomorphine has ...
*  Peter Klinken
Leukemia 9:900-907 (1995) Lyn tyrosine kinase is essential for erythropoietin-induced differentiation of J2E erythroid cells. ... WA's Chief Scientist honoured Effect of inhibitors of Ornithine decarboxylase on retrovirus induced transformation of murine ...
*  L-DOPA
... is produced from the amino acid L-tyrosine by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. It is also the precursor for the ... it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal ... L-Phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-DOPA are all precursors to the biological pigment melanin. The enzyme tyrosinase catalyzes ... In addition, tyrosinase can convert tyrosine directly to L-DOPA in the presence of a reducing agent such as ascorbic acid. The ...