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*  Protein primary structure
Similar to phosphorylated tyrosines, sulfated tyrosines are used for specific recognition, e.g., in chemokine receptors on the ... The phosphorylated tyrosines are often used as "handles" by which proteins can bind to one another, whereas phosphorylation of ... sulfation Tyrosines may become sulfated on their O η {\displaystyle \mathrm {O^{\eta }} } atom. Somewhat unusually, this ... A phosphate group can be attached to the sidechain hydroxyl group of serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, adding a negative ...
*  Tyrosine
... MS Spectrum Tyrosine metabolism Phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and tryptophan ... Tyrosine residues may also be modified by the addition of a sulfate group, a process known as tyrosine sulfation. Tyrosine ... It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric acid. Tyrosine is also the precursor to the pigment melanin. Tyrosine (or its ... namely meta-tyrosine (also known as 3-hydroxyphenylalanine, L-m-tyrosine, and m-tyr) and ortho-tyrosine (o-tyr or 2- ...
*  Tyrosine phosphorylation
Two important classes of tyrosine kinase in tyrosine phosphorylation are receptor tyrosine kinase and nonreceptor tyrosine ... Tyrosine phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO43−) group to the amino acid tyrosine on a protein. It is one of the ... Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl group of tyrosine ... As of 2002, of the 90 known human tyrosine kinases, 58 were RTKs, and opposing the action of the tyrosine kinases were 108 ...
*  Tyrosine hydroxylase
... can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion ... As tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, tyrosine ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ... Increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity due to phosphorylation can be sustained by nicotine for up to 48 hours. Tyrosine ...
*  Tyrosine sulfation
Tyrosine O-sulfate is a stable molecule and is excreted in urine in animals. No enzymatic mechanism of tyrosine sulfate ... Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine residue of a protein ... to the side-chain hydroxyl group of a tyrosine residue. Sulfation sites are tyrosine residues exposed on the surface of the ... Tyrosine O-sulfation is an irreversible process in vivo. It has been shown that the sulfation of Tyr1680 in Factor VIII is ...
*  Tyrosine kinase
... s catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins. The phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in ... Once a tyrosine receptor kinase is bonded to its ligand, it is able to bind to tyrosine kinase residing in the cytosol of the ... Protein tyrosine kinase plays a role in this task, too. A protein tyrosine kinase called pp125 is likely at hand in the ... Tyrosine kinases are a subclass of protein kinase. The phosphate group is attached to the amino acid tyrosine on the protein. ...
*  Tyrosine decarboxylase
... tyrosine apodecarboxylase, and L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and alkaloid ... In enzymology, a tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase (tyramine-forming). Other names in common use include L- ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } tyramine + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-tyrosine, and two products, tyramine ...
*  Tyrosine aminotransferase
... (or tyrosine transaminase) is an enzyme present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine ... L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate In humans, the tyrosine ... and elevated blood tyrosine levels. Keratitis in Tyrosinemia type II patients is caused by the deposition of tyrosine crystals ... wherein there is an abundance of tyrosine as a result of tyrosine failing to undergo an aminotransferase reaction to form 4- ...
*  Tyrosine phenol-lyase
In enzymology, a tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC 4.1.99.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... and L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. It employs ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. II. Cofactor requirements". J. Biol. Chem. ...
*  Tyrosine kinase 2
1995). "Homodimerization and intermolecular tyrosine phosphorylation of the Tyk-2 tyrosine kinase". FEBS Lett. 374 (3): 317-22 ... "Direct binding to and tyrosine phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the type I interferon receptor by p135tyk2 tyrosine ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene. Tyk2 was the first member of ... "Entrez Gene: TYK2 tyrosine kinase 2". Stark GR, Kerr IM, Williams BR, Silverman RH, Schreiber RD (1998). "How cells respond to ...
*  Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor
A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes ... Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitor Protein kinase inhibitor Yaish P, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1988). "Blocking of EGF- ... It was further shown that in spite of the conservation of the tyrosine-kinase domains one can design and synthesize tyrphostins ... Recently TKIs have been shown to deprive tyrosine kinases of access to the Cdc37-Hsp90 molecular chaperone system on which they ...
*  Tyrosine ammonia-lyase
Tyrosine ammonia lyase (L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, TAL or Tyrase) is an enzyme in the natural phenols biosynthesis pathway. It ... Tyrosine ammonia-lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) www.hhmi.org Molecular and ... phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase) Louie, G.V.; Bowman, M.E.; Moffitt, M.C.; Baiga, T.J.; Moore, B.S.; Noel, J.P. (2006). " ... "Discovery of a substrate selectivity switch in tyrosine ammonia-lyase, a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family". Chem ...
*  Receptor tyrosine phosphatase
... is a type of Enzyme-linked receptor. Types include PTPRA, PTPRB, PTPRC, PTPRD, PTPRE, PTPRF, ...
*  TEK tyrosine kinase
The TEK receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed almost exclusively in endothelial cells in mice, rats, and humans. (TEK is ... TEK tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with: ANGPT2, Angiopoietin 1, DOK2. Tie-2/Ang-1 signaling GRCh38: Ensembl ... Sato A, Iwama A, Takakura N, Nishio H, Yancopoulos GD, Suda T (Aug 1998). "Characterization of TEK receptor tyrosine kinase and ... Sato A, Iwama A, Takakura N, Nishio H, Yancopoulos GD, Suda T (Aug 1998). "Characterization of TEK receptor tyrosine kinase and ...
*  Bruton's tyrosine kinase
... (abbreviated Btk or BTK) also known as tyrosine-protein kinase BTK is an enzyme that in humans is ... Bruton's tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with: ARID3A BLNK, CAV1, GNAQ, GTF2I, PLCG2, PRKD1, and SH3BP5. Ibrutinib ( ... Yang W, Desiderio S (January 1997). "BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement ... Yamadori T, Baba Y, Matsushita M, Hashimoto S, Kurosaki M, Kurosaki T, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (May 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine ...
*  Tyrosine-arginine ligase
In enzymology, a tyrosine-arginine ligase (EC 6.3.2.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tyrosine + L- ... Ueda, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fukushima, N.; Shiomi, H.; Nakamura, A.; Takagi, H. (Jun 1987). "Kyotorphin (tyrosine-arginine) ... L-tyrosine, and L-arginine, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-tyrosyl-L-arginine. This enzyme belongs to the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine:L-arginine ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
*  Receptor tyrosine kinase
... (RTK) in this article is also known as tyrosine receptor kinase (TRK) or tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR ... Receptor tyrosine kinases are part of the larger family of protein tyrosine kinases, encompassing the receptor tyrosine kinase ... Tyrosine kinase Insulin receptor Enzyme-linked receptor Tyrphostins Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors The receptor tyrosine ... Kinase enzymes that specifically phosphorylate tyrosine amino acids are termed tyrosine kinases. Phosphate ATP Tyrosine When a ...
*  Tyrosine-tRNA ligase
L-tyrosine, and a tyrosine-specific transfer RNA [tRNA(Tyr) or tRNATyr], whereas its three products are AMP, diphosphate, and L ... Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.1), also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (symbol YARS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... Xin, Y; Li, W; First, EA (Oct 2000). "Stabilization of the transition state for the transfer of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) by ... The crystal structure of the complex between YARS from Methanococcus jannaschii, tRNA(Tyr) and L-tyrosine has been solved at ...
*  Tyrosine-ester sulfotransferase
L-tyrosine methyl ester 4-sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and L-tyrosine methyl ... In enzymology, a tyrosine-ester sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3'- ... Other names in common use include aryl sulfotransferase IV, and L-tyrosine methyl ester sulfotransferase. Duffel MW, Jakoby WB ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:L-tyrosine-methyl-ester sulfotransferase. ...
*  Protein tyrosine phosphatase
Tyrosine-specific protein phosphatases (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48) catalyse the removal of a phosphate group attached to a tyrosine ... Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on ... "The nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew functions in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase pathways in Drosophila". ... Together with tyrosine kinases, PTPs regulate the phosphorylation state of many important signalling molecules, such as the MAP ...
*  Tyrosine N-monooxygenase
... (EC 1.14.13.41, tyrosine N-hydroxylase, CYP79A1) is an enzyme with systematic name L-tyrosine,NADPH: ... L-tyrosine + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-hydroxy-L-tyrosine + NADP+ + H2O (1b) N-hydroxy-L-tyrosine ... N-dihydroxy-L-tyrosine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (Z)-[4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime] + CO2 + H2O Tyrosine N- ... Tyrosine N-monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
*  Tubulin-tyrosine ligase
L-tyrosine ligase (ADP-forming). Wehland J, Schroder HC, Weber K (1986). "Isolation and purification of tubulin tyrosine ligase ... In enzymology, a tubulin-tyrosine ligase (EC 6.3.2.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + detyrosinated ... and L-tyrosine, whereas its 3 products are alpha-tubulin, ADP, and phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ... alpha-tubulin + L-tyrosine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } alpha-tubulin + ADP + phosphate The 3 substrates of this ...
*  Tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase
In enzymology, a tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase (EC 5.4.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase. This enzyme is also called tyrosine alpha,beta-mutase. ... This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism. It employs one cofactor, 5-methylene-3,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one (MIO) which is ... Kurylo-Borowska Z, Abramsky T (1972). "Biosynthesis of β-tyrosine". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 264 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016/0304- ...
*  Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK
... also known as C-terminal Src kinase is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CSK gene. This ... "Identification of csk tyrosine phosphorylation sites and a tyrosine residue important for kinase domain structure". The ... Tyrosine-Kinase CSK is mainly present in the cytoplasm, but also found in lipid rafts making cell-cell junction. Y184F - ... This Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration ...
*  Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase
1994). "Molecular cloning of a novel non-receptor tyrosine kinase, HYL (hematopoietic consensus tyrosine-lacking kinase)". ... Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine-protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MATK gene. The protein encoded ... Jhun BH, Rivnay B, Price D, Avraham H (1995). "The MATK tyrosine kinase interacts in a specific and SH2-dependent manner with c ... Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with CD117 and TrkA. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...