*Immunoediting

... secreted by tumour cells help to foster an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment. During the escape phase, tumor cell ... Tumor cell variants which have acquired resistance to elimination then enter the escape phase. It is the longest of the three ... In the escape phase, tumor cells continue to grow and expand in an uncontrolled manner and may eventually lead to malignancies ... The tumor begins to develop and grow after escaping the immune system. Cancer immunology Dunn, Gavin P.; Old, Lloyd J.; ...

*Cancer immunology

... from immunosurveillance to tumor escape". Nature Immunology. 3 (11): 991-8. doi:10.1038/ni1102-991. PMID 12407406. Burnet M ( ... Immunoediting induces selection for certain tumour cells, which loose dominant tumour-specific antigens allowing the tumour to ... The way the host dendritic cells react and uptake tumour antigens to present to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells is the key to success of ... A virus that has been shown to cause breast cancer in mice is mouse mammary tumor virus. It is from discoveries such as this ...

*EGFL7

... promotes tumour escape from immunity by repressing leukocyte adhesion molecules of tumor blood vessel endothelial cells. ... Over-expression of Egfl7 in tumour cells implanted in mice increases tumour growth and metastasis. Within the tumours, Egfl7 ... "Egfl7 promotes tumor escape from immunity by repressing endothelial cell activation". Cancer Res. 71 (23): 7176-86. doi:10.1158 ... Egfl7 is also over-expressed by tumour cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma and overexpression is significantly higher in ...

*Nicholas P. Restifo

Khong HT, Restifo NP (November 2002). "Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of "tumor escape" phenotypes". ... Basic aspects of tumor and T cell immunology inform novel therapeutic interventions in the clinic. Restifo and his research ... These include work on how oxygen can inhibit anti-tumor immunity and how potassium ions from dying cancer cells can shut down ... The adoptive transfer of tumor-specific effector T cells knocked out or knocked down for CISH resulted in a significant ...

*Lloyd J. Old

Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape. Nat Immunol. 2002 Nov;3(11):991-8. Review. http://www. ... IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity. Nature. 2001 Apr 26;410(6832):1107 ... Coley Award for Discoveries in Basic and Tumor Immunology (honored as one of the "Founders of Tumor Immunology") 1976: Member, ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Science. 1985 Nov 8;230(4726):630-2. DeLeo AB, Jay G, Appella E, Dubois GC, Law LW, Old LJ. 1979. ...

*Antigenic escape

This can be achieved when the tumor recruits immunosuppressive cell subsets into the tumor's environment. Such cells include ... How Tumors Escape and Immunotherapeutic Approaches". Cancers. Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoda, Yoshio (2014). "Genetic Battle ... Antigenic escape occurs when the immune system is unable to respond to an infectious agent. This means that the response ... Antigenic escape is not only crucial for resistance of a host's natural immune response, but also for the resistance against ...

*Robert D. Schreiber

Subsequent work showed that tumors escape immune recognition by losing their antigenicity in a process he named cancer ... Tumors would, therefore, only arise if the tumor could develop a mechanism to evade the immune system, or if the immune system ... nude mice which lack an adaptive immune system have an increased incidence of tumors. His finding that the incidence of tumor ... "IFN-gamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity"., Nature 410:1107, 2001 Balzan ...

*Immune checkpoint

B7-H4 - also called VTCN1, is expressed by tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages and plays a role in tumour escape. BTLA ... "Disrupting Tumor Evasion of the Immune System". NewLink Genetics. Retrieved 5 June 2015. "Incyte Presents Results from a Phase ... An advantage of targeting PD-1 is that it can restore immune function in the tumor microenvironment. TIM-3 - short for T-cell ... Clinical trial number NCT01968109 for "Safety Study of Anti-LAG-3 With and Without Anti-PD-1 in the Treatment of Solid Tumors" ...

*Ceramide synthase 5

2006). "Selective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte targeting of tumor immune escape variants". Nat Med. 12 (4): 417-24. doi:10.1038/ ... A splice variant of CerS5 is expressed in lymphoma and other tumor cells and contribute to tumor recognition by the immune ... In response to upregulation of tumor suppressor protein p53, C16-ceramide levels were increased in leukemia and colon cancer ...

*Treatment of cancer

2008). "Exosomes as a tumor immune escape mechanism: possible therapeutic implications". J Transl Med. 6: 37. doi:10.1186/1479- ... The area radiated typically includes the tumor and an area surrounding the tumor. For metastatic brain tumors, radiation is ... Fetal tumors are sometimes diagnosed while still in utero. Teratoma is the most common type of fetal tumor, and usually is ... since the donor's immune cells will often attack the tumor in a phenomenon known as graft-versus-tumor effect. For this reason ...

*Trogocytosis

This effect leads to tumors cell escape by antigenic modulation. Reducing the dose of therapeutic antibodies to limit the ... However, using too much of the antibody results in part from the removal of rituximab-CD20 complexes from the tumor cell ... PMN's have to adhere to their target cells and form tight junctions with antibody opsonized tumor cells. This cell clustering ... increased interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, enhanced lymphocyte proliferation, and augmented NK-mediated ...

*LY6E

... is associated with drug resistance and tumor immune escape in breast cancer. Further research is required to validate Ly6E ... immune escape and drug resistance". Cancer Research. 76: canres.2654.2015. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2654. ISSN 0008-5472. ...

*FOXP3

This overexpression may be protecting tumorous cells, allowing them to create their "escape phase". A cancerous tumor's "escape ... which will suppress signals to the immune system and allow for tumor escape. In one experiment a 15-mer synthetic peptide, P60 ... indicating that FoxP3 is a potential tumour suppressor gene. Expression of FoxP3 was also detected in tumour specimens derived ... It does this by recruiting CD39, a rate-limiting enzyme that's vital in tumor suppression to hydrolyze ATP to ADP in order to ...

*Anoikis

However, metastatic tumor cells may escape from anoikis and invade other organs. The word Anoikis was coined by Frisch and ... The mechanism by which invading tumor cells survive the anoikis process remains largely unknown. Recent findings suggest that ... showed that anisomycin can sensitize metastatic epithelial cells to anoikis and reduce circulating tumor cell implantation in ... It seems that TrkB could make tumor cells resistant to anoikis by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling ...

*Oncoantigen

Loss of tumor antigen expression is another cause of escape from immune recognition. This occurs because most tumor antigens ... A major problem of cancer immunotherapy is the selection of tumor cell variants that escape immune recognition. The notion of ... García-Lora A, Algarra I, Collado A, Garrido F (June 2003). "Tumour immunology, vaccination and escape strategies". Eur. J. ... In contrast, downmodulation of molecules like oncogene products, which are essential for tumor growth, would impair tumor cells ...

*Fas ligand

Tumors may over-express Fas ligand and induce the apoptosis of infiltrating lymphocytes, allowing the tumor to escape the ... Yu KY, Kwon B, Ni J, Zhai Y, Ebner R, Kwon BS (May 1999). "A newly identified member of tumor necrosis factor receptor ... Fas ligand (FasL or CD95L) is a type-II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Its ... Tolstrup M, Ostergaard L, Laursen AL, Pedersen SF, Duch M (2004). "HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef". Curr ...

*Immunotransplant

... producing tumor vaccines. Blood 2000;95(10):3011-9. Mirmonsef P, Tan G, Zhou G, et al. Escape from suppression: tumor-specific ... That study uses a whole-cell, CpG-activated, autologous tumor vaccine to induce anti-tumor immunity followed by leukapheresis ... tumor-associated antigens, or whole tumor cells, can induce specific T-cell mediated immune responses. A number of approaches ... Because of the logistic difficulty of obtaining tumor-specific T cells via the ex vivo expansion of tumor-infiltrating cells, a ...

*Bemcentinib

Increase in AXL function has been linked to key mechanisms of drug resistance and immune escape by tumor cells, leading to ... In: Akslen L., Watnick R. (eds) Biomarkers of the Tumor Microenvironment. Springer, Cham. pp. 351-376.. ... The Role of Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase in Tumor Cell Plasticity and Therapy Resistance. ... from Rigel Pharmaceuticals by BerGenBio and currently undergoing six Phase II trials in various solid and hematological tumors ...

*Tumor hypoxia

The high levels of released lactate contribute to immune escape for the tumor cells. Activated T cells use glycolysis as an ... Tumor hypoxia is the situation where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen. As a tumor grows, it rapidly outgrows its blood ... With the hypoxic tumor cells consuming large amounts of glucose to maintain energy homeostasis, the tumor has found a way of ... The study of tumors in such conditions was pioneered by Dr L. H. Gray. An association between tumor hypoxia and metastatic ...

*Janus kinase 1

Expression of JAK1 in cancer cells enables individual cells to contract, potentially allowing them to escape their tumor and ... "Protein JAK Makes Cancer Cells Contract, So They Can Squeeze Out Of A Tumor". Medical News Today. Collum RG, Brutsaert S, Lee G ... "Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activates Jak1/Stat3-Stat5B signaling through TNFR-1 in human B cells". Cell Growth ...

*René Bernards

He has proposed more research in "escape routes" which tumors use, which prevent effective use of medication. He has helped in ...

*Granzyme

Tumors have the ability to escape from immune surveillance by secreting immunosuppressive TGF-β. This inhibits proliferation ... Although a tumor may be in its beginning stage and very weak, it may be giving off chemicals that inhibit the function of the ... Almost all people have suitable immune cells to fight off tumors in the body. Studies have shown that the immune system even ... TGF-β production is the most potent mechanism of immune avoidance used by tumors. TGF-β inhibits expression of five different ...

*Tom Cunningham

After Peri discovers that she has a brain tumour, Tom helps her escape from the hospital. They kiss and she faints from the ... After Tom escapes, he alerts Steph and Craig. Steph tells Niall she does not love him in a confrontation on a cliff. Niall, ... but Jude told him that she left the village 18 years ago to escape the trouble for what she has done. Tom later considers ... tumour and they go back to the hospital, where she undergoes a successful operation. In August when Peri is due to leave for ...

*Hyaluronidase

... hyaluronidases help cancer cells escape from primary tumor masses. However, studies show that removal of hyaluronan from tumors ... Limited data support a role of lysosomal hyaluronidases in metastasis, while other data support a role in tumor suppression. ... Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Itano, Naoki (May 2016). "Hyaluronan: A modulator of the tumor microenvironment". Cancer ... It has been hypothesized that, by helping degrade the ECM surrounding the tumor, ...

*Cell polarity

Friedl, Peter; Wolf, Katarina (May 2003). "Tumour-cell invasion and migration: diversity and escape mechanisms". Nature Reviews ...

*List of May Bukas Pa episodes

Santino fortunately escapes his pursuers with the help of a happy-go-lucky traveling sales lady named Libay. Upon learning that ... As the two journeys to an unknown location, Olegario tells Santino that he needs him to heal his son who has a brain tumor ... However, she was able to escape by pretending that she had gone into labor; while being driven, she got the gun of Dante, the ... He told Santino that Tatay Ben is a very bad person, and plans to escape along with Santino and the other children. Lloyd ...