Trichothecene mycotoxins such as HT-2 and T-2 toxin, both produced by F. sporotrichioides, represent a concern for human health ... The use of trichothecene mycotoxins as biological weapons has been suspected in the case of the controversial Soviet air ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Wannemacher, R. W.; Wiener, S. L. (1997). "Trichothecene Mycotoxins". Medical Aspects ... all of which are trichothecenes. NT-1 and NT-2 toxins are inhibitors of protein synthesis, whilst nivalenol is a skin irritant ...
Trichothecenes are generally formed via the Mevalonate pathway beginning with the precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). After ... Verrucarin A is classified as a type D trichothecene based on its substitution pattern in the 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene (EPT ... Verrucarin A belongs in the class of trichothecenes, a group of sesquiterpene toxins produced by several fungi, namely from the ... Although initially thought to be potentially useful as anticancer therapeutics, numerous examples of trichothecene derivatives ...
... the symptoms recorded are typical for intoxication with trichothecenes. There was a number of ways in which trichothecenes were ... Nivalenol (NIV) is a mycotoxin of the trichothecene group. In nature it is mainly found in fungi of the Fusarium species. The ... The best documented use of trichothecenes in warfare is the yellow rain controversy, this describes a number of attacks in ... An article by L. R. Ember published in 1984 in Chemical Engineering News describes the use of trichothecene mycotoxins as ...
Trichothecenes: The trichothecenes constitute a family of more than sixty sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by a number of ... The natural occurrence of trichothecenes, p. 1-26. In V. H. Beasley (ed.), Trichothecene mycotoxicosis: pathophysiologic ... The term trichothecene is derived from trichothecin, which was the one of the first members of the family identified. All ... Trichothecene mycotoxicosis: pathophysiologic effects, vol. I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla Joffe, A. Z. 1986. Fusarium species: ...
In contrast, as of 1997 the U.S. Army maintains that some experts believe that "trichothecenes were used as biological weapons ... Additional significant findings lie in the trichothecenes found in the leaf samples (T-2, DON, nivalenol) and yellow powder (T- ... Koch, P (October 2004). "State of the art of trichothecenes analysis". Toxicol. Lett. 153 (1): 109-112. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet. ... Desjardins, AE (June 2009). "From yellow rain to green wheat: 25 years of trichothecene biosynthesis research". J. Agric. Food ...
... is a macrocyclic trichothecene first isolated in 1985. It was tested on Swiss mice and found to be very toxic, ... a new class of macrocyclic trichothecenes". Tetrahedron Letters. 26 (40): 4859-62. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)94970-0. Schiefer ... H. B.; Hancock, D. S.; Jarvis, B. B. (1989). "Toxicology of Novel Macrocyclic Trichothecenes, Baccharinoid B4, Myrotoxin B, and ...
There have been reports of the presence of trichothecenes, specifically T-2 toxin, in infected apples in China. T-2 toxin has ... such as roseotoxins and trichothecenes, which can infect and spoil a variety of fruit crops. It can act as both a secondary and ... "Cancer preventive potential of trichothecenes from Trichothecium roseum". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 11 (12): 2511-2518 ... the highest toxicity of the trichothecenes and poses a threat to individuals who consume these infected apples due to its ...
In 1986, a study noted an airborne outbreak of toxicosis from trichothecenes associated with Stachybotrys atra in a Chicago ... Creasia DA, Lambert RJ, Beasley VR (1987-03-31). Acute Respiratory Tract Toxicity of the Trichothecene Mycotoxin, T-2 Toxin ( ... Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG, Ward MD, Harkema JR (July 2008). "Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp ... Croft WA, Jarvis BB, Yatawara CS (1986). "Airborne outbreak of trichothecene toxicosis". Atmospheric Environment (1967). 20 (3 ...
... , a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a naturally occurring toxin produced by the ascomycetes Stachybotrys chartarum and ... "Airborne outbreak of trichothecene toxicosis". Atmospheric Environment. 20 (3): 549-552. Bibcode:1986AtmEn..20..549C. doi: ...
Hohn, Thomas M. "Trichothecene-resistant transgenic plants". U.S. Patent 6,646,184. Priority date March 31, 1999. Dubois E, ... Four trichothecenes, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and deoxynivalenol (DON) have been most commonly ... In 2003, US published a patent that is very promising for farmers to produce a trichothecene-resistant crop. Zearalenone ... Trichothecenes - sourced from Cephalosporium, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, and Trichoderma. The toxins are usually ...
The fungus contains several trichothecene mycotoxins. The species was originally described as Hypocrea cornu-damae by Narcisse ... List of deadly fungi List of poisonous fungi Mycotoxicology Trichothecene "Podostroma cornu-damae (Pat.) Hongo & Izawa 1994". ... The poisoning symptoms are similar to those observed previously with animals that had consumed trichothecene mycotoxins. ... Japanese researchers detected the presence of the macrocyclic trichothecenes satratoxin H, satratoxin H 12′,13′-diacetate, ...
Aldred, D. and Magan, N. (2004) Prevention strategies for trichothecenes. Toxicol. Lett. 153, … 165-171. Scherm B, Balmas V, ...
The active ingredient was found to be trichothecene T-2 mycotoxin, and it was produced in quantity and weaponized prior to the ... The main toxins produced by these Fusarium species are fumonisins and trichothecenes. Despite most species apparently being ...
Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Beier, R. C.; Shen, J.; De Smet, D.; De Saeger, S.; Zhang, S., T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin: review ... T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as 'Tee-Two') is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is a naturally occurring mold byproduct of Fusarium ... Alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA), a disease which is caused by trichothecenes like T-2 mycotoxin, killed many thousands of USSR ... It has been shown that Iraq researched trichothecene mycotoxins, among other substances, and thus was capable of its possession ...
Trichothecenes have been found to cause growth retardation, wilting, chlorosis, and necrosis in some plants. It can work in ... Because it is a trichothecene, it has significant toxicity. If swallowed by humans, the initial symptoms are general discomfort ... Rocha, O.; K. Ansari; F. M. Doohan (April 2005). "Effects of trichothecene mycotoxins on eukaryotic cells: A review". Food ... Diacetylverrucarol is a natural trichothecene produced by the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria. Chemically, it is an acetate ...
... culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes". Frontiers in Microbiology. Frontiers. 7: 1-11. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00406. ISSN 1664-302X ...
Trichothecene mycotoxins are potent and non selective inhibitors of peptide elongation. Macrolides, clindamycin and ... Shifrin, Victor I.; Anderson, Paul (1999). "Trichothecene Mycotoxins Trigger a Ribotoxic Stress Response That Activates c-Jun N ...
Reduced levels of serotonin are believed to be responsible for the anorexic effects of DON and other trichothecenes. Irritation ... When compared to other trichothecene mycotoxins which can form in grains and forages, vomitoxin is relatively mild. Reduced ... Vomitoxin, also known as deoxynivalenol (DON), is a type B trichothecene, an epoxy-sesquiterpenoid. This mycotoxin occurs ... Vomitoxin belongs to a class of mycotoxins (trichothecenes) which are strong inhibitors of protein synthesis; exposure to ...
... (DAS), also called anguidine, is a mycotoxin from the group of type A trichothecenes. It is a secondary ...
Trichothecenes: The trichothecenes constitute a family of more than sixty sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by a number of ... The natural occurrence of trichothecenes, p. 1-26. In V. H. Beasley (ed.), Trichothecene mycotoxicosis: pathophysiologic ... Trichothecene mycotoxicosis: pathophysiologic effects, vol. I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla *^ Joffe, A. Z. 1986. Fusarium ... Trichothecenes: chemical, biological and toxicological aspects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands *^ Beasley, V. R. (ed.). ...
Trichothecene toxicity appears to be an underlying cause of many of these adverse effects. Recent findings indicate that lower ... Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG, Ward MD, Harkema JR (2008). "Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp ... the trichothecenes, which are most strongly associated with chronic and fatal toxic effects in animals and humans; and ... trichothecenes, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids such as ergotamine. One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins, ...
... trichothecenes, citrinin, and patulin. These toxic properties may be used for the benefit of humans when the toxicity is ...
... trichothecenes, and other toxins); ecology and environmental factors favoring formation and distribution of Fusarium mycotoxins ...
... chemotypes are toxic, with one producing trichothecene mycotoxins including satratoxins, and another that produces ...
Shotwell led a group investigating Fusarium fungi and their production of trichothecene toxins. Plants produce phytoalexins to ...
... host genetics and Fusarium graminearum isolates on Fusarium head blight development and trichothecene accumulation in spring ...
The protein product of the Fhb7 gene detoxifies trichothecenes produced by the fungus, which harm both the plant and any ...
There are two chemotypes in S. chartarum, one that produces trichothecene mycotoxins such as satratoxin H and one that produces ...
9, P.435-445 Larsen, J., Hunt, J., Perrin, I., et al, (2004) Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report, ... F. pseudograminearum produces the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, or DON, which spreads throughout the plant stem and ...
Roridin E, a known trichothecene mycotoxin, also demonstrated antifungal activity, as it caused 100% reduction in growth of S. ...