Outcomes in relation with selected kinds of treatment[edit]. Large-scale international reviews of scientific studies have ... One issue with trials is what to use as a placebo treatment group or non-treatment control group. Often, this group includes ... These incorporate subjective treatments (after Beck), behavioral treatments (after Skinner and Wolpe) and additional time- ... medical treatment"). The Oxford English Dictionary defines it now as "The treatment of disorders of the mind or personality by ...
Outcome of nonoperative treatment[edit]. Failure of nonoperative treatment leading to functional impairment and anatomic ... "Comparison of treatment outcomes between nonsurgical and surgical treatment of distal radius fracture in elderly: a systematic ... Outcome[edit]. World Health Organization (WHO) divides outcomes into three categories: impairment, disabilities, and handicaps ... Significant advances have been made in ORIF treatments. Two newer treatment are fragment-specific fixation and fixed-angle ...
Outcome and treatment[edit]. Defibrillator training kit. Most cases are fatal. Automated external defibrillators have helped ...
Treatment. Blood pressure control, surgery, ventricular drain [1]. Prognosis. 20% good outcome[2]. ... Treatment[edit]. Treatment depends substantially on the type of ICH. Rapid CT scan and other diagnostic measures are used to ... a b c d e f g h eMedicine Specialties , Neurology , Neurological Emergencies , Intracranial Haemorrhage: Treatment & Medication ... Treatment should typically be carried out in an intensive care unit.[1] Guidelines recommended decreasing the blood pressure to ...
Alexithymia influences treatment outcome.[110] Recovery is also viewed on a spectrum rather than black and white. According to ... Treatment[edit]. There is no conclusive evidence that any particular treatment for anorexia nervosa works better than others; ... Treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy, hospitalisation to restore weight[7][1]. Prognosis. 5% risk of death over 10 years[3][ ... however, there is enough evidence to suggest that early intervention and treatment are more effective.[96] Treatment for ...
Nevertheless the treatment of this type of meningioma remains a challenge with relatively frequent poor outcomes.[20] ... Joung H. Lee (2008-12-11). Meningiomas: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 3-13. ISBN ... Treatment[edit]. Observation[edit]. Observation with close imaging follow-up may be used in select cases if a meningioma is ... Newton HB (2007). "Hydroxyurea chemotherapy in the treatment of meningiomas". Neurosurg Focus. 23 (4): E11. doi:10.3171/foc-07/ ...
5 Treatment and prognosis *5.1 Treatment and management. *5.2 Outcome and prognosis ... One treatment methodogy that is very promising for the treatment of camptocormia is deep brain stimulation. Previously, deep ... Outcome and prognosis[edit]. This condition can lead to excess pressure on the spine, causing pain and discomfort.[4] If the ... Treatment of the underlying cause of the disease can alleviate the condition in some individuals with secondary BSS. Other ...
Moos, R.H.; Finney, J.W.; Cronkite, R.C. (1990). Alcoholism Treatment: Context, Process and Outcome. New York: Oxford ... "Ambrosia Treatment Center. 2016-02-11. Retrieved 14 August 2017.. *^ Gomberg, Edith S Lisansky (1989). Gomberg, Edith S (ed.). ... Sperry, M.D., Ph.D, Len (13 May 2013). Handbook of Diagnosis and Treatment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Kentucky: Routledge ... An empirical review of clinical folklore". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 10 (3): 303-16. doi:10.1016/0740-5472(93)90079 ...
Moos, R.H.; Finney, J.W.; Cronkite, R.C. (1990). Alcoholism Treatment: Context, Process and Outcome. New York: Oxford ... "Ambrosia Treatment Center. Retrieved 14 August 2017.. *^ Gomberg, Edith S Lisansky (1989). Gomberg, Edith S, ed. "On Terms Used ... Sperry, M.D., Ph.D, Len (13 May 2013). Handbook of Diagnosis and Treatment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Kentucky: Routledge ... Not all mental health professionals agree about standard methods of treatment.[31] Caring for an individual with a physical ...
Alternative treatments[change , change source]. While there are many alternative treatments used for the common cold, there is ... Outcome[change , change source]. The common cold is generally mild and goes away on its own with most symptoms improving in one ... The unit was closed in 1989, two years after it completed research of zinc gluconate lozenges in the prevention and treatment ... Al-Nakib, W; Higgins, PG; Barrow, I; Batstone, G; Tyrrell, DA (Dec 1987). "Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with ...
Surface osteosarcomas: Diagnosis, treatment and outcome. „Indian J Orthop". 48 (3), s. 255-61, May 2014. DOI: 10.4103/0019- ... Osteosarcoma of the jaw/craniofacial region: outcomes after multimodality treatment. „Cancer". 115 (14), s. 3262-70, Jul 2009. ... Periosteal osteosarcoma-a European review of outcome. „Eur J Cancer". 41 (18), s. 2806-11, Dec 2005. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca. ... Combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel in the treatment of children and young adults with refractory bone sarcoma. „Cancer". ...
To classify postoperative outcomes for epilepsy surgery, Jerome Engel proposed the following scheme,[1] the Engel Epilepsy ... Engel, Jerome (1993). Surgical Treatment of the Epilepsies. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-88167-988-7.. ... "Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale". Massachusetts General Hospital. Retrieved 31 March 2014.. ... As is the case for all current methods of reviewing epilepsy surgery outcomes, the Engel classification system has subjective ...
Psychotherapy may improve outcomes. Evidence for acupressure is poor. While vomiting in pregnancy has been described as early ... After rehydration, treatment focuses on managing symptoms to allow normal intake of food. However, cycles of hydration and ... Treatment includes drinking fluids and a bland diet. Recommendations may include electrolyte-replacement drinks, thiamine, and ... While previously known as a common cause of death in pregnancy, with proper treatment this is now very rare. Those affected ...
Onen A (December 2007). "Treatment and outcome of prenatally detected newborn hydronephrosis". Journal of Pediatric Urology. 3 ... Treatment of hydronephrosis focuses upon the removal of the obstruction and drainage of the urine that has accumulated behind ... Therefore, the specific treatment depends upon where the obstruction lies. Acute obstruction of the upper urinary tract is ...
Early diagnosis improves outcomes.[1] Treatment is supportive.[1] Mannitol may be used to help with the brain swelling.[2] ... Treatment[edit]. Treatment is supportive.[1] Mannitol may be used to help with the brain swelling.[2] ...
"Treatment & Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis". cdc.gov. February 13, 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.. ... "Treatment & Outcomes of Genital / Vulvovaginal Candidiasis". cdc.gov. February 13, 2014. Archived from the original on 29 ... only external treatments - such as a cream - can be recommended for penile treatment.[67] A one-time dose of fluconazole by ... Systemic treatment with antifungals by mouth is reserved for severe cases or if treatment with topical therapy is unsuccessful ...
... during treatment) and outcome measures (after termination of treatment).[29] The article by Stefan G. Hofmann and David H. ... In contrast, treatment method accounted for roughly 1% of outcome variance.[35] ... Kazdin, Alan E (June 2005). "Treatment outcomes, common factors, and continued neglect of mechanisms of change". Clinical ... and treatment fit variables in psychotherapy outcome". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 22 (3): 255-281. doi:10.1037/ ...
Saal JA, Saal JS (April 1989). "Nonoperative treatment of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc with radiculopathy. An outcome ... Treatment[edit]. Ideally, effective treatment aims to resolve the underlying cause and restores the nerve root to normal ... "Pinched Nerve Symptoms & Treatment , Advanced Neurosurgery". Advanced Neurosurgery Associates. Retrieved 2020-12-14.. ... Conservative treatment may include bed rest, physical therapy, or simply continuing to do usual activities; for pain, ...
Early treatment increases the chance of a good outcome.[2] Treatment consists of stabilizing the person, followed by the use of ... Treatment[edit]. Methanol poisoning can be treated with fomepizole, or if unavailable, ethanol.[6][12][13] Both drugs act to ... Long-term outcomes may include blindness and kidney failure.[1] Toxicity and death may occur even after drinking a small amount ... Additional treatment may include sodium bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis, and hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration to remove ...
Walker KM, Pope J (August 2012). "Treatment of systemic sclerosis complications: what to use when first-line treatment fails--a ... Outcome depends on the extent of disease.[3] Those with localized disease generally have a normal life expectancy.[7] In those ... Treatment[edit]. No cure for scleroderma is known, although relief of symptoms is often achieved; these include the:[13][31] ... Systemic disease-modifying treatment with immunosuppressants is often used.[16][32][33][34][35][36] Immunosuppressants used in ...
2-Year Outcomes From the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 173 (4): 362-372. doi:10.1176 ... The approach is similar to assertive community treatment, but with an increased focus on the engagement and treatment of this ... community-oriented treatment of early psychosis an economically viable method of improving outcome?". Acta Psychiatr Scand. 100 ... The aim is to reduce the usual delays to treatment for those in their first episode of psychosis. The provision of optimal ...
... this may reflect poor treatment of the Church.[11][12] In 715, the Mercians under Ceolred fought a battle at "Woden's Barrow", ... the outcome of this battle was not recorded. ...
No pharmacological treatment I 7. Treatment goal I 8. Socio-healthcare system. N 0. Need, unspecified N 1. Treatment based on ... Outcome. I 0. Information / Health education, unspecified I 1. Situation / reason for encounter I 2. Health problem I 3. ... Treatment based on public health issues N 4. Prevention N 5. Healthcare provision N 6. Complementary test for treatment control ... Complementary examination I 4. Risk I 5. Pharmacological treatment I 6. ...
With appropriate treatment, outcomes are good. Cleft lip and palate occurs in about 1 to 2 per 1000 births in the developed ... Treatment procedures can vary between craniofacial teams. For example, some teams wait on jaw correction until the child is ... Cleft lip and palate is very treatable; however, the kind of treatment depends on the type and severity of the cleft. Most ... Allowing an entire team to care for a child throughout their cleft lip and palate treatment (which is ongoing) allows for the ...
Treatment[edit]. All persons suspected of Lassa fever infection should be admitted to isolation facilities and their body ... "A prospective study of maternal and fetal outcome in acute Lassa fever infection during pregnancy". BMJ. 297 (6648): 584-7. ... Early and aggressive treatment using ribavirin was pioneered by Joe McCormick in 1979. After extensive testing, early ... Because of treatment with ribavirin, fatality rates are continuing to decline.[26][27] ...
... and Treatment Outcomes". Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 10 (11): e005579. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005579. PMID ... Comorbidity treatment[edit]. For people who have both atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea, observational studies ... Both methods have similar outcomes.[104] Rate control lowers the heart rate closer to normal, usually 60 to 100 bpm, without ... Treatment. Lifestyle modifications, rate control, rhythm control, anticoagulation[5]. Frequency. 2.5% (developed world), 0.5% ( ...
Treatment may include speech therapy or extra help with schoolwork. Outcomes are generally good. Prevention is not possible. ... ISBN 0-385-50993-6. Blumer, Dietrich; Migeon, Claude (February 1975). "Hormone and hormonal agents in the treatment of ... Genetic disorders and the fetus : diagnosis, prevention and treatment (4th ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp ... prevention and treatment (6th ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 273-312. ISBN 1-4051-9087-6. The addition of a Y chromosome to ...
"Levels of Evidence for the Outcome of Nonsurgical Endodontic Treatment". Journal of Endodontics. 31 (9): 637-646. doi:10.1097/ ... Root canal treatment[edit]. Main article: Root canal treatment. Root canal treatment is a dental procedure used to treat ... The root canal treatment procedure is often carried out over single[3] or multiple appointments.[4] Root canal treatment ... Treatment is provided based on the severity of the injury.[10] Tooth discolouration as a result of root canal treatment can ...
If medical treatment does not reduce a patient's urinary symptoms, a TURP may be considered following a careful examination of ... Outcome is considered excellent for 80-90% of BPH patients. BPH is normally initially treated medically. This is done through ... This is considered the most effective treatment for BPH. This procedure is done with spinal or general anaesthetic. A triple ... Postoperative complications include Bleeding (most common). Bleeding may be reduced by pre-treatment with an anti-androgen such ...
Outcomes are generally good with treatment.[2]. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is about 1 and 2% that of live births in ... Early treatment of an ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate is a viable alternative to surgical treatment[33] which was developed ... Treatment[edit]. Expectant management[edit]. Most women with a PUL are followed up with serum hCG measurements and repeat TVS ... Salpingectomy as a treatment for ectopic pregnancy is one of the common cases when the principle of double effect can be used ...
PIR has a poorer resolution than NIR and this treatment typically focuses on more global increases in cerebral blood flow.[3] ... Stokes, D.A. & Lappin, M.S.. (2010). Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study. Behavioral ... The myriad of studies exploring the potency of neurotherapy as a treatment for ASD have primarily involved EEG and QEEG, but ... 70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ...
Poupon RE, Balkau B, Eschwège E, Poupon R (May 1991). "A multicenter, controlled trial of ursodiol for the treatment of primary ... "Efficacy, patient-reported outcomes and safety profile of ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an injectable drug for the reduction of ... Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid has been used for many years in these cholestatic disorders.[24][25] ... Stones may recur when treatment is stopped. Bile acid therapy may be of value to prevent stones in certain circumstances such ...
The treatment of bilateral coronal synostosis shows a high degree of overlap with treatment of unilateral coronal synostosis; ... Panchal J, Marsh JL, Park TS, Kaufman B, Pilgram T, Huang SH (May 1999). "Sagittal craniosynostosis outcome assessment for two ... TreatmentEdit. The primary goal of surgical intervention is to allow normal cranial vault development to occur.[42] This can be ... The treatment of pansynostosis comprises the expansion of the anterior cranial vault, as well as the posterior cranial vault.[ ...
Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment as there is some evidence that it decreases mortality;[7][25][104] ... No major organization recommends universal screening for diabetes as there is no evidence that such a program improve outcomes. ... O'Gorman DJ, Krook A (September 2011). "Exercise and the treatment of diabetes and obesity". The Medical Clinics of North ... Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment ...
However, the number of empirical studies on community webs is on the rise and the mathematical treatment of food webs using ... and laws of food web behaviours relative to observable outcomes. "Food web theory centers around the idea of connectance."[65]: ...
Treatment[edit]. Ice is applied to relieve pain and swelling. Any open wounds are cleansed to avoid infection. ... For most fractures with less than 70 degrees of angulation, buddy taping and a tensor bandage resulted in similar outcomes to ... Treatment. Buddy taping and a tensor bandage, reduction and splinting[4][3]. ... For most fractures with less than 70 degrees of angulation, buddy taping and a tensor bandage resulted in similar outcomes to ...
In short, even innocuous treatments can indirectly produce negative outcomes.[171] Between 2001 and 2003, four children died in ... a) Misinterpreted natural course - the individual gets better without treatment. b) Placebo effect or false treatment effect - ... 2003). "Open versus hidden medical treatments: The patient's knowledge about a therapy affects the therapy outcome". Prevention ... Treatment delay. Alternative medicine may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment.[169] Those having ...
Treatment and management of COVID-19. U. *List of unproven methods against COVID-19 ... neurological, psychological and other mental health outcomes. *Pregnancy. *Non-COVID-19-related health issues ...
van der Poll T, Opal SM (2009). "Pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia". Lancet. 374 (9700): 1543- ... "The Role of Innate Immune Responses in the Outcome of Interspecies Competition for Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces". PLoS ... Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin-resistant Pneumocci (PRP) ...
... two treatments (REGN-EB3 and mAb114) are associated with improved outcomes.[10] Supportive efforts also improve outcomes.[1] ... While there is no approved[by whom?] treatment for Ebola as of 2019[update],[9] two treatments (REGN-EB3 and mAb114) are ... Treatment is primarily supportive in nature.[135] Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves ... "FDA Approves First Treatment for Ebola Virus". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. ...
TreatmentEdit. The first-line treatment of Cushing's disease is surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; this ... Patients older than 64 years were more likely to have an adverse outcome and prolonged hospital stay. Women were 0.3 times less ... One of the major complications of this treatment is progression of Nelson's syndrome which is caused by enhance level of tumor ... Ding D, Starke RM, Sheehan JP (May 2014). "Treatment paradigms for pituitary adenomas: defining the roles of radiosurgery and ...
"Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 89: 75-86. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2018.04.002. PMC 5964257. PMID 29706176.. ... "Oregon Study: Medicaid 'Had No Significant Effect' On Health Outcomes vs. Being Uninsured". Forbes. Retrieved April 18, 2019.. ... A 2017 study found that Medicaid expansion, by increasing treatment for substance abuse, "led to a sizeable reduction in the ... Due to the high costs associated with HIV medications, many patients are not able to begin antiretroviral treatment without ...
"Clostridium Infections". Advances in Research and Treatment (2011 ed.). ScholarlyEditions. 9 January 2012. ISBN 9781464960130. ... "Indigenous gray ducks, Anas superciliosa, and introduced mallards, A. platyrhynchos, in New Zealand: processes and outcome of ...
... and aggressive treatment of acne is advocated by some in the medical community to reduce the chances of these poor outcomes.[4] ... Retinoids became a medical treatment for acne in 1943.[84] Benzoyl peroxide was first proposed as a treatment in 1958 and ... hormonal treatments, keratolytic soaps, nicotinamide, retinoids, and salicylic acid.[75] Acne treatments work in at least four ... but data for long-term outcomes, and outcomes in those with severe acne, are sparse;[156] it may have a role for individuals ...
There is no difference in outcomes between embolization and ligation as treatment options, but embolization is considerably ... Treatment[edit]. The flow of blood normally stops when the blood clots, which may be encouraged by direct pressure applied by ... Guarisco JL, Graham HD (1989). "Epistaxis in children: causes, diagnosis, and treatment". Ear Nose Throat J. 68 (7): 522, 528- ... The drugs oxymetazoline or phenylephrine are widely available in over-the-counter nasal sprays for the treatment of allergic ...
For his work on the quantitative treatment of biological problems. 1900. Ernst Haeckel. For his long-continued and highly ... On the ground of his South African bionomic researches, in large part undertaken as the outcome of correspondence with Charles ...
This results in a delay of treatment, which can be detrimental to patients in need of immediate medical attention. Most of ... Devkota, Bhimsen (1 December 2010). "Understanding effects of armed conflict on health outcomes: the case of Nepal". BioMed ...
"Outcome of patients with acquired aplastic anemia given first line bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive treatment ... High-dose corticosteroids such as prednisone are a standard treatment; however this immuno-suppressive treatment often leads to ... This treatment also has an immunosuppressive effect that prevents rejection of the HSC by the recipient's immune system. The ... Many recipients of HSCTs are multiple myeloma[10] or leukemia patients[11] who would not benefit from prolonged treatment with ...
Treatment of spontaneous abortions[change , change source]. Usually, no treatment is needed for a miscarriage. However, ... "David M. Fergusson, Joseph M. Boden, L. John Horwood" (2007). ""Abortion Among Young Women and Subsequent Life Outcomes"". " ... "The Need for Assessing the Outcome of Common Medical Practices." 1 Ann Rev Pub Health 291 (1980). ... Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2 (1): 5-73. doi:10.1007/BF01805718. PMID 6216933. ...
Wikipedia articles are not supposed to be pedagogic treatments of their topics. Readers who are interested in learning a ... with a somewhat unsatisfactory outcome, because of a participant with unusual foundational views. --Trovatore (talk) 21:29, 13 ...
Usually the treatment is done in the second trimester of pregnancy, for a woman who had either one or more late miscarriages in ... due to perceived better outcomes and more pregnancies carried to term. A c-section is required for women giving birth with a ... The treatment consists of a strong suture being inserted into and around the cervix early in the pregnancy, usually between ... Cervical cerclage, also known as a cervical stitch, is a treatment for cervical incompetence or insufficiency, when the cervix ...
Treatment[edit]. Patient understanding of the new diagnosis is crucial for their treatment, which requires their active ... Though there is limited evidence, outcomes appear to be relatively poor with a review of outcome studies finding that two ... Describe treatment to help regain control of symptoms. Psychotherapy is the most frequently used treatment, which might include ... the authors point out ways in which this may have biased their outcome data. Outcome was shown to be better in people with ...
"Outcomes of the two treatments were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney two-sample rank-sum test. The treatment effect ( ... Treatment A decreased weight by HLΔ = 5 kg (0.95 CL [2, 9] kg, 2P = 0.02, ρ = 0.58).". However it would be rare to find so ... Consider another hare and tortoise race, with 19 participants of each species, in which the outcomes are as follows, from first ... Bergmann, Reinhard; Ludbrook, John; Spooren, Will P.J.M. (2000). "Different Outcomes of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test from ...
Treatment[edit]. The decision to treat is based on a belief that the child will be disabled by being extremely short as an ... final height in children with short stature may be beneficial and could enhance health-related quality of life outcomes, ... barring troublesome side effects and excessive cost of treatments.[7] Cost[edit]. The cost of treatment depends on the amount ... Treatment is expensive and requires many years of injections with human growth hormones. The result depends on the cause, but ...
It has also been found that treatment of tobacco related diseases and the loss of productivity caused therein cost the country ... the evidence that smoking bans improved health outcomes had become more robust, especially with respect to acute coronary ... "Treatment protocols of the lupus nephritis collaborative study of plasmapheresis in severe lupus nephritis. The Lupus ... are viewed by public health experts as an important element in reducing smoking rates and promoting positive health outcomes. ...
... and engaging treatment of Niebuhr's theological and political work that emphasizes his skill in working with scripture and in ...
... adverse pregnancy outcomes are possible with untreated infection; prompt treatment with antibiotics reduces or eliminates this ... Treatment[edit]. Antibiotics are the primary treatment.[2][23] The specific approach to their use is dependent on the ... Facial palsy may resolve without treatment; however, antibiotic treatment is recommended to stop other Lyme complications.[30] ... "Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome".. Further reading[edit]. *. Richard Ostfeld (2012). Lyme Disease: The Ecology of a ...
There is a wide range of ways to measure treatment outcomes.[90] Chiropractic care, like all medical treatment, benefits from ... "Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001878. doi: ... "Chiropractic treatment available on NHS in Cornwall". BBC. August 13, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.. ... "Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 ...
By 1556 Georgius Agricola's treatment of mining and smelting of ore, De Re Metallica, included a detailed description of ... The researchers themselves concluded that the outcome unquestionably demonstrated successful dowsing abilities, but a ...
Gioacchini, FM (January 2015). "Clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of thyroglossal duct cysts: a systematic review". ... "Clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of thyroglossal duct cysts: a systematic review". International Journal of Oral ... and simple cystectomy treatment modalities.[16] The Sistrunk procedure also showed better outcomes concerning the rate of ... Treatment[edit]. Although generally benign, the cyst must be removed if the patient exhibits difficulty in breathing or ...