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*  Clostridium difficile toxin A
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (27): 16782-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.27.16782. PMID 9642235. Just I, Selzer J, von Eichel- ... is a toxin generated by Clostridium difficile. It is similar to Clostridium difficile Toxin B. The toxins are the main ... Kuehne SA, Cartman ST, Heap JT, Kelly ML, Cockayne A, Minton NP (October 2010). "The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium ... "Cytokine response by human monocytes to Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B". Infection and Immunity. 59 (10): 3659-66. ...
*  Enterotoxin
All of these toxins share a similar two-domain fold (N and C-terminal domains) with a long alpha-helix in the middle of the ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (42): 26652-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.42.26652. PMID 9334247. Enterotoxins at the US ... These toxins share the ability to bind to the major histocompatibility complex proteins of their hosts. A more distant relative ... They are mostly pore-forming toxins (mostly chloride pores), secreted by bacteria, that assemble to form pores in cell ...
*  Soviet biological weapons program
Botulinum toxin (botulism) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Smallpox Marburg virus These programs became immense and were conducted ... proposed a new biological warfare program, called the "Biological Shield of Russia" to president Vladimir Putin. The program ... 1998 Post-World War II Programs of Biological Weapons The Russian Biological Weapons Program: Vanished or Disappeared? by Dany ... Red Lies: Biological warfare and the Soviet Union, CBC News Online, February 18, 2004 An Obscure Weapon of the Cold War Edges ...
*  Clostridium difficile toxin B
"Low pH-induced formation of ion channels by Clostridium difficile toxin B in target cells". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... These bacterial toxins have been shown to be associated with Clostridium sordellii hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH), lethal toxin (TcsL ... Toxin A) and a cytotoxin (Toxin B, this protein). Toxin B (TcdB) is a cytotoxin that has a molecular weight of 270 kDa and an ... toxin B activity had more detrimental cytotoxic effects in comparison with toxin A. Therefore, the activity of toxin A is ...
*  Protein primary structure
In biological systems, proteins are produced during translation by a cell's ribosomes. Some organisms can also make short ... This modification is a target for the powerful toxins of disparate bacteria, e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae ... The primary structure of a biological polymer to a large extent determines the three-dimensional shape (tertiary structure). ... Chemical methods typically synthesise peptides in the opposite order to biological protein synthesis (starting at the C- ...
*  Wouter Basson
Basson continued to travel all over the world to gather information about chemical and biological warfare programs and set up ... began to investigate the SADF and determined that the army had probably used lethal toxins against ANC activists. Basson was ... His job was to collect information about other countries' chemical and biological warfare capabilities under the name Project ... Secrets and Lies: Wouter Basson and South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Programme Gould & Marlene Burger, Struik ...
*  Laboratory safety
"Biological Agents and Biological Toxins". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved 4 February 2015. "An ... These are federally regulated biological agents (e.g., viruses, bacteria, fungi, and prions) and toxins that have the potential ... Ricin - Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant toxins. It has been used in the past as a bioterrorist weapon ... Besides exposure to chemicals and biological agents, laboratory workers can also be exposed to a number of physical hazards. ...
*  Al Hakum (Iraq)
The program also purified biological toxins, including botulinum toxin, ricin and aflatoxin. In total, a half million liters of ... Iraqi biological weapons program Block, S. M. (2001, January-February). The growing threat of biological weapons, American ... It produced large quantities of botulinum toxin and anthrax from 1989 to 1996. The name derives from the common Arabic name or ... Al Hakum - also spelled Al Hakam - was at one time Iraq's most sophisticated and largest biological weapons (BW) production ...
*  Iraqi biological weapons program
The program also purified biological toxins, such as botulinum toxin, ricin and aflatoxin. After 1995, it was learned that, in ... Strains of dual-use biological material from France also helped advance Iraq's biological warfare program. From the United ... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... Why Saddam Hussein did not to use these biological weapons in 1991 is unclear, but the presumption has been that he was ...
*  Erhard Geißler
Biological and Toxin Weapons Today. Oxford 1986 Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention by Confidence-Building Measures ... Oxford 1990 Prevention of a Biological and Toxin Arms Race and the Responsibility of Scientists. Berlin 1991 (Co-author) ...
*  Allen Shofe
BIOLOGICAL) AND TOXIN WEAPONS AND ON THEIR DESTRUCTION" (PDF). Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). Yorkshire, U.K ... Biological) and Toxin Weapons and their Destruction. We are looking at various products that would satisfy the needs of our ...
*  New physical principles weapons
The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972. The Seventh Review Conference was held in Geneva in December 2011, which ... use of charged or neutral particles to affect biological targets infrasonic means using acoustic radiation to affect biological ... and toxin weapons is effectively prohibited by the Convention". The Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons, Protocol IV of the 1980 ... targets means using electromagnetic radiation to affect biological targets. The Convention on the Prohibition of Military or ...
*  Scyllatoxin
... are important for the expression of toxin biological activities and for its receptor affinity. Scyllatoxin is a blocker of ... This toxin shows similarity in its physiological activity and binding specificity to apamin, but both toxins show no structural ... This toxin is stabilized by disulfide bonds: Cys8-Cys26 and Cys12-Cys28 is bound to the β-sheet, Cys3-Cys21 is bound to an N- ... Buisine E, Wieruszeski JM, Lippens G, Wouters D, Tartar A, Sautiere P (June 1997). "Characterization of a new family of toxin- ...
*  Miniature mass spectrometer
The samples are biological toxins and chemical agents with the mass range from a few hundred daltons to over 60 kDa. The ... This mini analyzer can measure 66k Da proteins, mixtures of oligonucleotides, and biological spores. Verbeck at University of ... The suitcase TOF was tested by scientists from U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. ...
*  Aerosolization
"Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". Center For Infectious Disease Research & Policy. Yaobo Ding, Burkhard Stahlmecke, ... See for example "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". Dustiness is defined as the tendency of a powder material to generate ... In the context of chemical and biological weapons, aerosolization is a means of dispersing a chemical or biological agent in an ...
*  Neurotoxin
"Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". The Journal of the Americal Medical Association. 285 (8): 1059-069. Aschner, M.; ... The deadliness of the toxin means that it has a high military potential as a toxin weapon. Bungarotoxin is a compound with ... doi:10.1016/0304-3940(88)90085-7. Simpson, L. L. (1986). "Molecular Pharmacology of Botulinum Toxin and Tetanus Toxin". Annual ... toxins have evolved to become highly specific to their target channels such that the toxin does not readily bind other targets ...
*  ServSafe
The course discusses foodborne illnesses, including information on specific foodborne pathogens and biological toxins, such as ...
*  Guided rat
This could be used, for example, to detect chemical and biological toxins in the air via the rat's own sense of smell. ... However, it has been suggested that by interpreting biological signals directly from the brain of the rat, additional ...
*  Biological agent
Biological hazard Biological contamination Laboratory Response Network Pulsed ultraviolet light Toxin "Biological Agents". ... A biological agent-also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon-is ... Rafał L. Górny, Biological agents, OSHwiki U.S. Department of Labor - Biological Agents U.S. Department of Health and Human ... "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ...
*  John Gaddum
During the Second World War he advised the War Office on potential use of toxins and biological weapons. He was given the rank ...
*  Pelagia noctiluca
When stimulated the cnidae secrete nematocyst toxins that are biological poisons. P. noctiluca is a member of the cnidarian ...
*  KCNB1
Potassium delayed rectifiers have been implicated in many pharmacological uses in the investigation of biological toxins for ... Many of these toxins originate from species of tarantulas. G. spatulata produces the hanatoxin, which was the first drug to be ... Other toxins, such as stromatoxin, heteroscordratoxin, and guangxitoxin, target the selectivity of voltage KCNB1 rectifiers, by ... A main component to many of the toxins with negative effects on delayed rectifiers contain cystine inhibitors that are arranged ...
*  Spiez Laboratory
Biology Analysis and diagnosis of biological agents and toxins. Chemistry Analysis of samples of Chemical warfare agents and ... biological and chemical threats and dangers. It is part of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports (DDPS ...
*  African swine fever virus
The Implementation of Legally Binding Measures to Strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. NATO Science Series ... Zilinskas, R. A. (1999). "Cuban Allegations of Biological Warfare by the United States: Assessing the Evidence". Critical ... Wheelis, M. (2004). "A Short History of Biological Warfare and Weapons". ...
*  Mark Wheelis
"Biological Warfare before 1914", In: Geissler E, Moon JEvC, editors. Biological and toxin weapons: research, development and ... Wheelis is currently a professor in the College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis. Carl Woese and Otto ... Wheelis's research interests include the history of biological warfare. He co-authored (with Larry Gonick) The Cartoon Guide to ...
*  Phage display
This initial study described the rapid isolation of human antibody Fab that bound tetanus toxin and the method was then ... US patent 5866363, Pieczenik G, "Method and means for sorting and identifying biological information", published 1999-02-02 ...
*  Dendrotoxin
Therefore, voltage-gated potassium channels are targets for a wide range of potent biological toxins from such organisms as ... Thus, venom purification has led to the isolation of peptide toxins such as the dendrotoxins, which have become useful ... 296:1283-1294 Harvey AL, Rowan EG, Vatanpour H, Engstrom A, Westerlund B, Karlsson E (1997). Changes to biological activity ... Furthermore, because they regulate ionic flux across biological membranes, they are important in many aspects of cellular ...