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*  Atmospheric temperature
Atmospheric thermodynamics Brightness temperature Emissivity of Earth's atmosphere Geometric altitude vs. temperature, pressure ...
*  Thermodynamics
Atmospheric thermodynamics Biological thermodynamics Black hole thermodynamics Chemical thermodynamics Classical thermodynamics ... Thermodynamics Data & Property Calculation Websites Thermodynamics Educational Websites Thermodynamics at ScienceWorld ... First law of thermodynamics: The internal energy of an isolated system is constant. The first law of thermodynamics is an ... Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium ...
*  Volume (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state. The ... The second law of thermodynamics describes constraints on the amount of useful work which can be extracted from a thermodynamic ... Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill. p. 11. ISBN 0-07-238332-1. A. D. McNaught, A. Wilkinson (1997). ...
*  Computational thermodynamics
... for Materials Design KTH, Sweden Computational Thermodynamics University of Brno, Czech Republic. ... Computational thermodynamics may be considered a part of materials informatics and is a cornerstone of the concepts behind the ... R W Cahn (1998) ISBN 0-08-042129-6[page needed] H L Lukas, S G Fries and B Sundman, Computational Thermodynamics, the Calphad ... Computational thermodynamics is the use of computers to simulate thermodynamic problems specific to materials science, ...
*  Equilibrium thermodynamics
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Thermodynamics Adkins, C.J. (1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge ... Equilibrium thermodynamics differs from non-equilibrium thermodynamics, in that, with the latter, the state of the system under ... Equilibrium Thermodynamics is the systematic study of transformations of matter and energy in systems in terms of a concept ... Equilibrium thermodynamics, in origins, derives from analysis of the Carnot cycle. Here, typically a system, as cylinder of gas ...
*  Quantum thermodynamics
... is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum ... Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics, giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The main ... In thermodynamics, entropy is related to a concrete process. In quantum mechanics, this translates to the ability to measure ... Currently quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic laws from quantum mechanics. It differs from quantum ...
*  Work (thermodynamics)
2.11 Chemical Thermodynamics, p. 56. Planck, M. (1897/1903). Treatise on Thermodynamics, translated by A. Ogg, Longmans, Green ... J.Kestin A Course in Thermodynamics (Blaisdell Publishing 1966), p.121. M.A.Saad Thermodynamics for Engineers (Prentice-Hall ... This distinction between work and heat is essential to thermodynamics. Beyond the conceptual scope of thermodynamics proper, ... as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. For a closed thermodynamic system, the first law of thermodynamics ...
*  Biological thermodynamics
Principles covered include the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy, statistical ... The field of biological thermodynamics is focused on principles of chemical thermodynamics in biology and biochemistry. ... In terms of thermodynamics, the amount of energy capable of doing work during a chemical reaction is measured quantitatively by ... The First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of the conservation of energy; though it can be changed from one form to another ...
*  Component (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, a component is a chemically-independent constituent of a system. The number of components represents the ...
*  Chemical thermodynamics
The structure of chemical thermodynamics is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics. Starting from the first and second ... Klotz, I. (1950). Chemical Thermodynamics. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Herbert B. Callen (1960). Thermodynamics. Wiley & Sons ... Introduction to thermodynamics and the First Law) Thermodynamics of chemical equilibrium (Entropy, Second Law and free energy) ... and thus established the foundation of the science of chemical thermodynamics. The first was the 1923 textbook Thermodynamics ...
*  Atmospheric thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics Cloud physics Equilibrium thermodynamics Fluid dynamics Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Thermodynamics ... Atmospheric thermodynamics use the laws of classical thermodynamics, to describe and explain such phenomena as the properties ... ISBN 0-19-506630-8 (thermodynamics of tropical cyclones). Iribarne, J.V. and Godson, W.L., Atmospheric thermodynamics, ... Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509904-4. Curry, J.A. and P.J. Webster, 1999, Thermodynamics of ...
*  Diffuser (thermodynamics)
A diffuser is "a device for reducing the velocity and increasing the static pressure of a fluid passing through a system". Diffusers are used to slow the fluid's velocity while increasing its static pressure. The fluid's static pressure rise as it passes though a duct is commonly referred to as pressure recovery. In contrast, a nozzle is often intended to increase the discharge velocity and lower pressure while directing the flow in one particular direction. Frictional effects during analysis can sometimes be important, but usually they are neglected. Ducts containing fluids flowing at low velocity can usually be analyzed using Bernoulli's principle. Analyzing ducts flowing at higher velocities with mach numbers in excess of 0.3 usually require Compressible flow relations. A typical, subsonic diffuser is a duct that increases in size in the direction of flow. As the duct increases in size, fluid velocity decreases, and static pressure rises. Both mass flow rate and Bernoulli's principle are ...
*  Conjugate variables (thermodynamics)
For this reason, the term thermodynamics is usually used synonymously with equilibrium thermodynamics. A central notion for ... In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as temperature ... A similar situation exists in thermodynamics. An increment in the energy of a thermodynamic system can be expressed as the sum ... While dealing with processes in which systems exchange matter or energy, classical thermodynamics is not concerned with the ...
*  Critical point (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve. The most prominent ... Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2002). Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill. pp. 91-93. ISBN 0-07- ... ISBN 0-19-855818-X. Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2002). Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach (Fourth ed.). McGraw- ... Chemical Thermodynamics (MacMillan 1969), p.123 Fisher, Widom: Decay of Correlations in Linear Systems, J. Chem Phys 50, 3756 ( ...
*  Nucleic acid thermodynamics
... is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). ... For DNA oligonucleotides, i.e. short sequences of DNA, the thermodynamics of hybridization can be accurately described as a two ... John SantaLucia Jr., John; Donald Hicks (June 2004). "The thermodynamics of DNA structural motifs". Annual Review of Biophysics ... 1998). "A unified view of polymer, dumbbell, and oligonucleotide DNA nearest-neighbor thermodynamics". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...
*  Black-hole thermodynamics
In physics, black-hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the ... Analogously, the second law of thermodynamics states that the change in entropy in an isolated system will be greater than or ... Analogously, the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conservation, which contains on its right side the term T ... Stating that κ {\displaystyle \kappa } cannot go to zero is analogous to the third law of thermodynamics, which states that the ...
*  Carnot's theorem (thermodynamics)
Based on modern thermodynamics, Carnot's theorem is a result of the second law of thermodynamics. Historically, it was based on ... John Murrell (2009). "A Very Brief History of Thermodynamics". Retrieved May 2, 2014. Archive copy at the Internet ArchivePDF ( ... Nevertheless, the second law of thermodynamics still provides restrictions on fuel cell and battery energy conversion. ... It may seem odd that a hypothetical heat pump with low efficiency is being used to violate the second law of thermodynamics, ...
*  Timeline of thermodynamics
... lays the foundation for the second law of thermodynamics, and initiating the science of thermodynamics 1827 - Robert Brown ... A timeline of events related to thermodynamics. 1650 - Otto von Guericke builds the first vacuum pump 1660 - Robert Boyle ... The importation and dissipation of energy could reverse the 2nd law of thermodynamics History of physics History of ... 1916 - Einstein considers the thermodynamics of atomic spectral lines and predicts stimulated emission 1919 - James Jeans ...
*  Material properties (thermodynamics)
Callen, Herbert B. (1985). Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ...
*  Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
... is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic ... Extended irreversible thermodynamics is a branch of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that goes outside the restriction to the ... This is part of why non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a work in progress. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a work in progress ... Equilibrium thermodynamics ignores the time-courses of physical processes. In contrast, non-equilibrium thermodynamics attempts ...
*  Entropy (statistical thermodynamics)
An important result, known as Nernst's theorem or the third law of thermodynamics, states that the entropy of a system at zero ... But from the first law of thermodynamics, dE = δw + δq. Therefore, d S = δ ⟨ q rev ⟩ T {\displaystyle dS={\frac {\delta \langle ... As such, according to the second law of thermodynamics, it is the equilibrium configuration of an isolated system. Boltzmann's ... This is an example illustrating the Second Law of Thermodynamics: the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends ...
*  Entropy (classical thermodynamics)
The laws of thermodynamics hold rigorously for inhomogeneous systems even though they may be far from internal equilibrium. The ... From a more fundamental point of view, the third law of thermodynamics suggests that there is a preference to take S = 0 at T ... If we calculate the entropy S1 before and S2 after such an internal process the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands that S2 ≥ ... Entropy is a key ingredient of the Second law of thermodynamics, which has important consequences e.g. for the performance of ...
*  Maximum entropy thermodynamics
In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and ... Edwin Thompson Jaynes First law of thermodynamics Second law of thermodynamics Principle of maximum entropy Principle of ... Classical thermodynamics is built on the assumption that entropy is a state function of the macroscopic variables-i.e., that ... To that extent, the MaxEnt STh is as "real" as the entropy in classical thermodynamics. Of course, in reality there is only one ...
*  Laws of thermodynamics
The four laws of thermodynamics are: Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third ... sometimes described as a fourth law of thermodynamics) Table of thermodynamic equations Guggenheim, E.A. (1985). Thermodynamics ... First law of thermodynamics: When energy passes, as work, as heat, or with matter, into or out from a system, the system's ... Third law of thermodynamics: The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. ...
*  Extended irreversible thermodynamics
... is a branch of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that goes beyond the local equilibrium ... Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, 4th edition, Jou D, Casas-Vazquez J, Criado-Sancho M (2011), Thermodynamics of Fluids ... 33 41-51 Müller I, Ruggeri T (1998), Rational Extended Thermodynamics, 2nd edition, Springer, New York Jou D, Casas-Vazquez J, ... Jou D, Casas-Vazquez J, Lebon G (1988), Extended irreversible thermodynamics, Rep. Prog. Phys 51 1105-1179 Lebon G, Casas- ...