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*  Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease
Romagnani S (1999). "Th1/Th2 cells". Inflamm Bowel Dis. 5 (4): 285-94. doi:10.1002/ibd.3780050410. PMID 10579123. Inoue S, ... Ulcerative colitis was less conclusively linked to the production of Th2 cytokines. The monoclonal antibody infliximab is a ...
*  BHLHE41
... which promotes TH2 differentiation. Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ... Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". Advances in Experimental Medicine ... and metastasis in sarcoma cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It has been shown that the normal tissue adjacent to colon ...
*  ICOSLG
... expressed on human endothelial cells, costimulates Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion by memory CD4+ T cells". Proceedings of the ... Sperling AI, Bluestone JA (July 2001). "ICOS costimulation: It's not just for TH2 cells anymore". Nature Immunology. 2 (7): 573 ... "Expression of genes for B7-H3 and other T cell ligands by nasal epithelial cells during differentiation and activation". ... by human airway epithelial cells". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 28 (5): 563-73. doi:10.1165/rcmb ...
*  Macrophage polarization
M2a macrophages are connected with Th2 immune response. Th2 cells, eosinophils, basophils and macrophages themselves produce IL ... This cytokine regulates gene expression programs of macrophages like cytokine receptors, cell activation markers or cell ... Also TAMs are not able to lyse tumour cells. Targeting of TAM may be a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer. Mantovani, ... Natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages themselves produce IFN-γ as well. ...
*  Immunosuppressive drug
CD3 antibodies shift the balance from Th1 to Th2 cells.[citation needed] The patient may develop neutralizing antibodies ... In this way, it prevents the cell from transitioning from the G0 into G1 phase of the cell cycle. Tacrolimus is more potent ... This lowers the number of available T-cells, perhaps by sensitizing them for the uptake by the epithelial reticular cells. The ... They affect the proliferation of both T cells and B cells. Due to their highest effectiveness, purine analogs are most ...
*  CD278
It is thought to be important for Th2 cells in particular. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell ... It forms homodimers and plays an important role in cell-cell signaling, immune responses and regulation of cell proliferation. ... Compared to wild-type naïve T cells, ICOS-/- T cells activated with plate-bound anti-CD3 have reduced proliferation and IL-2 ... In terms of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion, ICOS-/- CD4+ T cell activated in vitro reduced IL-4 secretion, while maintaining ...
*  PD-L1
Loke P, Allison JP (April 2003). "PD-L1 and PD-L2 are differentially regulated by Th1 and Th2 cells". Proceedings of the ... PD-L1 is expressed on T cells, NK cells, macrophages, myeloid DCs, B cells, epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. ... PD-L1 binds to its receptor, PD-1, found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition ... In a mouse model of intracellular infection, L. monocytogenes induced PD-L1 protein expression in T cells, NK cells, and ...
*  Prostaglandin DP2 receptor
... an increase in the expression of DP2 by these cells, an enhanced rate of differentiation of precursor cells to Th2 cells in ... see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells) by binding to a receptor initially termed GPR44 and thereafter CRTH2 (for ... and Th2 cells at sites of nascent inflammation in animal models. PGD2, acting through DP2, stimulates the in vitro chemotaxis ... and Th2 cells. DP2 activation also stimulates eosinophils and basophils to release the many pro-allergic elements of their ...
*  T helper cell
The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... IFN-γ drives Th1 cell production while IL-10 and IL-4 inhibit Th1 cell production. Conversely, IL-4 drives Th2 cell production ... In addition to expressing different cytokines, Th2 cells also differ from Th1 cells in their cell surface glycans ( ...
*  PCGF2
"Regulation of Th2 cell differentiation by mel-18, a mammalian polycomb group gene". Immunity. 15 (2): 275-87. doi:10.1016/S1074 ... The expression of this gene was detected in various tumor cells, but is limited in neural organs in normal tissues. Knockout ... Guo WJ, Datta S, Band V, Dimri GP (February 2007). "Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, regulates cell proliferation and ... cell cycles, and tumorigenesis. This protein was shown to act as a negative regulator of transcription and has tumor suppressor ...
*  Prostaglandin D2
It is a major prostaglandin produced by mast cells - recruits Th2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils. In mammalian organs, large ... amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation". Development. 136 (11): 1813-1821. doi:10.1242/dev ... amounts of PGD2 are found only in the brain and in mast cells. It is critical to development of allergic diseases such as ...
*  Palatine tonsil
Both Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in the pathophysiology of TH and RT conditions. Indeed, human tonsils persistently harbor ... They are produced by wide range of cell types upon antigen-specific and non-antigen specific stimuli. It has been reported by ... Most Immunoglobulin A produced by tonsillar B cells in vitro appears to be 7S monomers, although a significant proportion may ... Tonsillar (relating to palatine tonsil) B cells can mature to produce all the five major Immunoglobulin (Ig, aka antibody) ...
*  Interleukin 33
B cells, Th2 cells, eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. This protein is also thought to cause the itching that is associated ... mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 ... an IL-1 family receptor that is highly expressed on Th2 cells, mast cells and group 2 innate lymphocytes. IL-33 is expressed by ... IL-33 induces helper T cells, mast cells, eosinophils and basophils to produce type 2 cytokines. This cytokine was previously ...
*  Th 9 cells
while TGF-β alone can switch TH2 cells into TH9 cells. IL-2 is critical for interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. IL-1 may ... Th9 cells can differentiate either from naive T lymphocytes or by a shift from TH2 cells. There are numbers of cytokines, ... TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ − ) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9 (IL-9 ... mast cells and others as well as promote growth of mast cells. TH9 cells appear to be linked to many pathophysiological ...
*  Interleukin 25
IL-25 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-17 cytokine family and is secreted by type 2 helper T cells (Th2) and mast cells. IL ... "IL-25 augments type 2 immune responses by enhancing the expansion and functions of TSLP-DC-activated Th2 memory cells". The ... "IL-25 enhances allergic airway inflammation by amplifying a TH2 cell-dependent pathway in mice". The Journal of Allergy and ... "IL-25 causes apoptosis of IL-25R-expressing breast cancer cells without toxicity to nonmalignant cells". Science Translational ...
*  Janus kinase inhibitor
Hence Th2 cell differentiation is blocked and therefore tofacitinib is effective in treating allergic diseases. Tofacitinib to ... Cytokines play key roles in controlling cell growth and the immune response. Many cytokines function by binding to and ... Cancer Cell. 28 (1): 15-28. doi:10.1016/j.ccell.2015.06.006. PMC 4503933 . PMID 26175413. Stallard, J (23 July 2015). " ... which in turn blocks IFN-γ and IL-6 signalling and consequently Th1 cell differentiation. One mechanism (relevant to psoriasis ...
*  Intestinal mucosal barrier
This leads to antigen sensitisation and dietary antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cell and IgE production. The hypothesis is that ... Cytokines Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) Th2 helper cell effector cytokines interleukin 4 (IL4) and ... Specialised secretory epithelial cells called Paneth cells secrete abundant quantities human α-defensins into the intestinal ... These include dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), T regulatory cells (T Regs), TCD4+ ...
*  Food allergy
... causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a ... These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the production of antibodies. Coupled with ... and are still dependent on activity of TH2 cells. Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick ... on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute ...
*  IL1RL1
It appears to be essential for the normal function of T helper cells type 2 (Th2 cells) . Mutations in this gene have been ... 2002). "Activated, but not resting human Th2 cells, in contrast to Th1 and T regulatory cells, produce soluble ST2 and express ... 1998). "T1/ST2 is preferentially expressed on murine Th2 cells, independent of interleukin 4, interleukin 5, and interleukin 10 ... 1997). "The expression of ST2 gene in helper T cells and the binding of ST2 protein to myeloma-derived RPMI8226 cells". J. ...
*  Interleukin-4 receptor
Among T cells, the encoded protein also can bind interleukin 4 to promote differentiation of Th2 cells. A soluble form of the ... with IL-4 or IFN-gamma to selectively enhance endothelial-cell adhesiveness for T-cells-the contribution of vascular cell- ... and this soluble form can inhibit IL4-mediated cell proliferation and IL5 upregulation by T-cells. Allelic variations in this ... Interactions of IL-4 with TNFα promote structural changes to vascular endothelial cells, thus playing an important role in ...
*  Sialyl-Lewis X
The sialyl Lewis X determinant is expressed preferentially on activated Th1 cells but not on Th2 cells. The term Lewis in its ... that is usually attached to O-glycans on the surface of cells. It is known to play a vital role in cell-to-cell recognition ... Sialyl-Lewisx allows a sperm cell to recognize and fertilize an egg cell. For fertilization to occur, human sperm must bind to ... Sialyl Lewis x is an inflammation-associated antigen on liver cells. It becomes over expressed on diseased liver cells and can ...
*  TBX21
"Different antigens trigger different Th1/Th2 reactions in neonatal mononuclear cells (MNCs) relating to T-bet/GATA-3 expression ... "Sustained T-bet expression confers polarized human TH2 cells with TH1-like cytokine production and migratory capacities". The ... "Transcription factor expression in B-cell precursor-leukemia cell lines: preferential expression of T-bet". Leukemia Research. ... Atayar C, Poppema S, Blokzijl T, Harms G, Boot M, van den Berg A (Jan 2005). "Expression of the T-cell transcription factors, ...
*  MAF (gene)
"Cytokine coexpression during human Th1/Th2 cell differentiation: direct evidence for coordinated expression of Th2 cytokines". ... Olbrot M, Rud J, Moss LG, Sharma A (May 2002). "Identification of beta-cell-specific insulin gene transcription factor RIPE3b1 ... DePianto DJ, Blankenship TN, Hess JF, FitzGerald PG (Jun 2003). "Analysis of non-crystallin lens fiber cell gene expression in ... Cancer Cell. 5 (2): 191-9. doi:10.1016/S1535-6108(04)00019-4. PMID 14998494. Cao S, Liu J, Song L, Ma X (Mar 2005). "The ...
*  BMI1
Bmi-1 is also indicated as a key factor in controlling Th2 cell differentiation and development by stabilizing GATA ... Colorectal cancer stem cell self-renewal was reduced by BMI1 inhibition. The colon cancer stem cells in mouse xenografts could ... Bmi1 is necessary for efficient self-renewing cell divisions of adult hematopoietic stem cells as well as adult peripheral and ... "Regulation of Th2 cell development by Polycomb group gene bmi-1 through the stabilization of GATA3". J. Immunol. 177 (11): 7656 ...
*  Mir-126
"Antagonism of microRNA-126 suppresses the effector function of TH2 cells and the development of allergic airways disease". Proc ... This includes controlled cell death and responses to wounds. During apoptosis cell death, cells release apoptotic bodies ... Increased expression of mir-126 inhibits cell proliferation of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and prevents tomour ... In endothelial cells, mir-126 is also released with in these bodies are upon absorption in a neighbouring cell induce the ...
*  Interferon
However, they block the proliferation of T helper cells type two. The previous results in an inhibition of Th2 immune response ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring ... and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten ... and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. All interferons share several common effects: ...