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*  Interleukin 22
Kagami S, Rizzo HL, Lee JJ, Koguchi Y, Blauvelt A (May 2010). "Circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells are increased in psoriasis ... IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in ... IL-22R is expressed on tissue cells, and it is absent on immune cells. Crystallization is possible if the N-linked ... "Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodeling". The Journal of Clinical ...
*  CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity
Th1 differentiation is IL-12 dependent, and IFN-γ is the signature cytokine of cells of a Th1 lineage. Th1 cell anti-tumor ... and since IL-12 promotes Th1 cell differentiation, this forms a tumor-suppressing feedback loop. Th1 and NK cells both ... Th1 cells are indirectly responsible for activating tumor-suppressing CTLs by activating the antigen-presenting cells which ... Th1 cells are one of the two main Th cell polarizations first identified. ...
*  CXCR3
... -ligand interaction attracts Th1 cells and promotes Th1 cell maturation. As a consequence of chemokine-induced cellular ... and some epithelial cells. CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells favor the expression of ... CXCR3 ligands that attract Th1 cells can concomitantly block the migration of Th2 cells in response to CCR3 ligands, thus ... A hallmark of CXCR3 is its prominent expression in in vitro cultured effector/memory T cells, and in T cells present in many ...
*  Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
The virus activates a subset of T-helper cells called Th1 cells. The result is a proliferation of Th1 cells and overproduction ... including CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells and B cells. HTLV-I entry is mediated through interaction of the surface unit of the ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma ... Once integrated, HTLV-1 continues to exist only as a provirus which can spread from cell to cell through a viral synapse. Few, ...
*  Dermatitis herpetiformis
These T cells become activated and polarised into type I helper T (Th1) cells. Th1 cells reactive towards gliadin have been ... The B cell endocytoses the complex and presents the modified gliadin to the activated Th1 cell's T cell receptor (TCR) via pMHC ... Once the B cell becomes activated, it differentiates into plasma cells that secrete autoantibodies against tTG, which may be ... A naive B cell sequesters tTG-modified gliadin complexes from the surface of cDCs in the lymph nodes (LNs) before they become ...
*  CD137
Kim YJ, Kim SH, Mantel P, Kwon BS (1998). "Human 4-1BB regulates CD28 co-stimulation to promote Th1 cell responses". Eur. J. ... In addition, CD137 expression is found on dendritic cells, B cells, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, ... CD137 can be expressed by activated T cells, but to a larger extent on CD8 than on CD4 T cells. ... Cell. Biol. 18 (1): 558-65. PMC 121523 . PMID 9418902. Jang IK, Lee ZH, Kim YJ, Kim SH, Kwon BS (1998). "Human 4-1BB (CD137) ...
*  CCR8 (gene)
"The chemokine receptor CCR8 is preferentially expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells". J. Immunol. 161 (2): 547-51. PMID 9670926. ... "Identification of the chemokine receptor TER1/CCR8 expressed in brain-derived cells and T cells as a new coreceptor for HIV-1 ... "Characterization of chemokine receptors expressed in primitive blood cells during human hematopoietic ontogeny". Stem Cells. 18 ... Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte chemotaxis and thymic cell apoptosis. ...
*  Galectin
In particular it is secreted in abundance by Th1 cells. In its normal function, galectin-1 binds to glycans on the CD4 co- ... Both galectin-1 and galectin-9 are secreted by epithelial cells in the thymus and mediate T cell apoptosis. T cell death is ... Thus, they have a broad variety of functions including mediation of cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix adhesion and ... reducing cell-cell interactions. In breast cancer cells, it is hypothesised that galectin-3 has high affinity for cancer- ...
*  Interferon type II
IFN-γ released by Th1 cells is also important in regulating the Th2 response. As IFN-γ is vitally implicated in the regulation ... IFN-γ released by Th1 cells recruits leukocytes to a site of infection, resulting in increased inflammation. It also stimulates ... It is produced in activated T-cells and natural killer cells. IFN-γ has some anti-viral and anti-tumor effects, but these are ... complex to elicit a signal within its target cell. IFNGR is made up of two subunits each of molecules designated IFNGR1 and ...
*  Trichuris muris
This in turn drives up the proliferation and differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells. Eighteen days after infection, the worm ... These whipworms utilize their anterior ends to embed themselves into the cells that line the walls of the large intestine. ... The activation of type 2 helper cells (Th2) is decreased in the presence of antibiotics because there are fewer whipworms ...
*  Effects of parasitic worms on the immune system
Because parasitic worms often induce Th2 cells and lead to suppressed Th1 cells, problems arise when Th1 cells are needed. Such ... In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. ... Kamal, the human immune system needs Th1 cells to effectively fight TB. Since the immune system often responds to parasitic ... cells. Professor Rook explains that these regulatory T cells release interleukins that fight inflammation. In the Journal of ...
*  Innate lymphoid cell
ILC1s are analogous to Th1 cells, and share the common transcription factor of T-bet. Natural killer ('NK') cells are cytotoxic ... ILC1 cells comprise NK cells, CD127low CD103+ intraepithelial ILC1s and CD127high ILC1s. ILC1s are weakly cytotoxic cells ... 2016). "Cancer immunosurveillance by tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells and innate-like T cells". Cell. 164 (3): 365-377. ... NK cells express a number of cell surface activating NK cell receptors with specificity for stress induced ligands ...
*  T helper cell
The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. The key Th1 ... IFN-γ drives Th1 cell production while IL-10 and IL-4 inhibit Th1 cell production. Conversely, IL-4 drives Th2 cell production ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... Proliferating helper T cells that develop into effector T cells differentiate into two major subtypes of cells known as Th1 and ...
*  CD133
... melanoma induces specific Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated antitumor reactivity against parental tumor". Cancer Immunol. Immunother. ... CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells, ... CD133+ melanoma cells are considered a subpopulation of CSC a critical role in recurrence. Moreover, CD133+ melanoma cells are ... Wang Q, Chen ZG, Du CZ, Wang HW, Yan L, Gu J (2009). "Cancer stem cell marker CD133+ tumour cells and clinical outcome in ...
*  Molecular mimicry
Bystander myelin damage is caused by virus specific Th1 cells that cross react with this self epitope. To test the efficacy in ... Tolerance is also produced in T cells. There are also various processes which lead to B cell tolerance. Just as in T cells, ... B cell tolerance then must occur within the periphery after the induction of B cell tolerance within the thymus as a more ... Upon the activation of B or T cells, it is believed that these "peptide mimic" specific T or B cells can cross-react with self- ...
*  Interleukin-12 subunit beta
This cytokine has been found to be important for sustaining a sufficient number of memory/effector Th1 cells to mediate long- ... This cytokine is expressed by activated macrophages that serve as an essential inducer of Th1 cells development. ... "Ligation of CD40 on dendritic cells triggers production of high levels of interleukin-12 and enhances T cell stimulatory ... This gene encodes a subunit of interleukin 12, a cytokine that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of ...
*  Wuchereria bancrofti
This occurs due to cytokine IL-4 suppressing the activity of TH1 cells in the immune system. This can occur for years until the ...
*  Type IV hypersensitivity
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. CD4+ Th1 helper T cells ... These can be macrophages that secrete IL-12, which stimulates the proliferation of further CD4+ Th1 cells. CD4+ T cells secrete ... These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and ... Activated CD8+ T cells destroy target cells on contact, whereas activated macrophages produce hydrolytic enzymes and, on ...
*  Sialyl-Lewis X
The sialyl Lewis X determinant is expressed preferentially on activated Th1 cells but not on Th2 cells. The term Lewis in its ... that is usually attached to O-glycans on the surface of cells. It is known to play a vital role in cell-to-cell recognition ... Sialyl-Lewisx allows a sperm cell to recognize and fertilize an egg cell. For fertilization to occur, human sperm must bind to ... Sialyl Lewis x is an inflammation-associated antigen on liver cells. It becomes over expressed on diseased liver cells and can ...
*  Interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 subunit
In Th1 cells, IL-12 signaling through the IL12 receptor leads to the phosphorylation of STAT4 and continued Th1 differentiation ... The IL12Rβ2 subunit plays an important role in Th1 cell differentiation, since its absence leads to an abortive Th1 ... Treg Cells Undergo Abortive Th1 Cell Differentiation due to Impaired Expression of IL-12 Receptor β2". Immunity. 37 (3): 501-10 ... 2003). "Interleukin 12-augmented T cell proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive individuals ...
*  Eomesodermin
"Human Th1 cells that express CD300a are polyfunctional and after stimulation up-regulate the T-box transcription factor ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 is highly expressed in CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells are the helper T cells which detect ... Neurons, the primary functional cells of the brain, are developed from radial glia cells. This process of cells developing into ... Eomesodermin/Tbr2 prevents CD8+ cells from differentiating into other types of T cells, but does not play a role in the ...
*  Acne
... and Th1 cells. IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which in turn fuels comedo development. ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle. In normal skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface and ... Furthermore, sebaceous gland cells produce more antimicrobial peptides, such as HBD1 and HBD2, in response to binding of TLR2 ... Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells ...
*  BTLA
... expression is induced during activation of T cells, and BTLA remains expressed on Th1 cells but not Th2 cells. Like PD1 ... B cells". J. Immunol. 158 (6): 2663-9. PMID 9058799. Vilen BJ, Famiglietti SJ, Carbone AM, et al. (1997). "B cell antigen ... Pao LI, Bedzyk WD, Persin C, Cambier JC (1997). "Molecular targets of CD45 in B cell antigen receptor signal transduction". J. ... However, unlike PD-1 and CTLA-4, BTLA displays T-Cell inhibition via interaction with tumor necrosis family receptors (TNF-R), ...
*  STAT4
It is required for the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ production in response to IL-12. Human as ... Distribution of STAT4 is restricted to myeloid cells, thymus and testis. In resting human T cells it is expressed at very low ... "Temporal induction pattern of STAT4 target genes defines potential for Th1 lineage-specific programming". Journal of Immunology ...
*  Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease
Romagnani S (1999). "Th1/Th2 cells". Inflamm Bowel Dis. 5 (4): 285-94. doi:10.1002/ibd.3780050410. PMID 10579123. Inoue S, ... Crohn's disease cytokines, are of the type 1 (Th1) cytokines which include TNF-α, interleukin-2, and interferon γ. Ulcerative ...
*  CD278
In terms of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion, ICOS-/- CD4+ T cell activated in vitro reduced IL-4 secretion, while maintaining ... It forms homodimers and plays an important role in cell-cell signaling, immune responses and regulation of cell proliferation. ... It is thought to be important for Th2 cells in particular. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell ... Compared to wild-type naïve T cells, ICOS-/- T cells activated with plate-bound anti-CD3 have reduced proliferation and IL-2 ...