As with related tetracycline antibiotics, demeclocycline acts by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit to inhibit binding of ... Like other tetracyclines, demeclocycline is contraindicated in children and pregnant or nursing women. All members of this ... Tetracyclines bind to cations, such as calcium, iron (when given orally), and magnesium, rendering them insoluble and ... These are similar to those of other tetracyclines. Skin reactions with sunlight have been reported. Like only few other known ...
... was also the first drug used for treatment of malaria.[40] Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures.[41] The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset the bark's bitter taste, thus producing tonic water.[citation needed] The Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s or earlier: Nicolás Monardes (1571) and Juan Fragoso (1572) both described a tree that was subsequently identified as the cinchona tree and whose bark was used to produce a drink to treat diarrhea.[42] Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the early 17th century. It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Malaria was responsible for the deaths of ...
Tetracycline and minocycline. Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic,[26] and its derivative minocycline is common in the ... If heavy staining or tetracycline damage is present on a patient's teeth, and whitening is ineffective (tetracycline staining ... Sánchez, AR; Rogers RS, 3rd; Sheridan, PJ (October 2004). "Tetracycline and other tetracycline-derivative staining of the teeth ... Tetracycline staining. Contra-indications[edit]. Some groups are advised to carry out tooth whitening with caution as they may ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Coartem is provided without profit to developing countries using grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, US President's Malaria Initiative along with other donors. Novartis has lowered the price of Coartem by 50% since 2001, increasing access to patients around the world. The first significant price reduction occurred in 2006, when the price of Coartem decreased from an average of US $1.57 to US $1.00. In 2006, due to an improved supply situation for the natural ingredient artemisinin, Novartis was able to undertake the pharmaceutical industry's most aggressive manufacturing scale-up of its kind from 4 million treatments in 2004 to 62 million treatments in 2006.[citation needed] Novartis and its partners invested heavily in expanding production capacity at their facilities in China, and Suffern, New York. This increase in production capacity ensured that supplies of Coartem met demand which enabled Novartis to further decrease the price of Coartem. In April 2008, ...
Tetracycline and derivatives. *Demeclocycline. *Chlortetracycline. *Oxytetracycline. *Tetracycline. Others. *Amphenicol: ...
... is a form of aminoquinoline with an amine at the 8-position of quinoline. The 8-aminoquinoline family of drugs contains three members, primaquine, tafenoquine and pamaquine[1] and are used in the treatment of malaria. They may be used to eradicate malaria hypnozoites from the liver and have both been used for malaria prophylaxis. The 8-aminoquinoline drugs must not be given to patients with G6PD deficiency, because they cause potentially fatal haemolysis in these patients. Pamaquine is no longer available anywhere, but primaquine is still used routinely worldwide as part of the treatment of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria. Tafenoquine is currently in Phase III clinical trials and is not yet available to prescribe. ...
... is primarily used to prevent relapse of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale.[9] It eliminates hypnozoites, the dormant liver form of the parasite,[10] after the organisms have been cleared from the bloodstream.[9] If primaquine is not administered to patients with proven P. vivax or P. ovale infection, a very high likelihood of relapse exists for weeks or months (sometimes years).[9] Use in combination with quinine or chloroquine each of which is very effective at clearing P. vivax from blood, improves outcomes; they appear to also potentiate the action of primaquine.[11] As of 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of primaquine for primary prophylaxis prior to travel to areas with a high incidence of P. vivax, and for terminal prophylaxis (anti-relapse therapy) after travel.[4] A single dose of primaquine has rapid and potent ability to kill gametocytes (stage V) of P. falciparum and P. vivax in blood; it also kills asexual ...
... was formulated at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in the 1970s shortly after the end of the Vietnam war. Mefloquine was number 142,490 of a total of 250,000 antimalarial compounds screened during the study.[3] Mefloquine was the first Public-Private Venture (PPV) between the US Department of Defense and a pharmaceutical company. WRAIR transferred all its phase I and phase II clinical trial data to Hoffman LaRoche and Smith Kline. FDA approval as a treatment for malaria was swift. Most notably, phase III safety and tolerability trials were skipped.[3] The drug was first approved and sold on a commercial basis in Switzerland in 1985.[31] However, mefloquine was not approved by the FDA for prophylactic use until 1989. This approval was based primarily on compliance, while safety and tolerability were overlooked.[3] Because of the drug's very long half-life, the Centers for Disease Control originally recommended a mefloquine dosage of 250 mg every two weeks; however, this ...
"Tetracycline (doxycycline, minocycline)". Markel, A (October 2005). "Allopurinol-induced DRESS syndrome" (PDF). Israel Medical ...
Charest, M. G.; Siegel, D. R.; Myers, A. G. (2005). "Synthesis of (-)-tetracycline". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... tetracycline achieved the linear tetracyclic core of the antibiotic with a Diels-Alder reaction. Thermally initiated, ... which reacted intermolecularly to give the tetracycline skeleton; the diastereomer shown was then crystallized from methanol ...
Use of 1% tetracycline ointment or 0.5% erythromycin ointment or 1% silver nitrate solution (Crede's method) into the eyes of ...
... produces tetracycline. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Streptomyces ...
Important drug interactions are rare.[27][28] However, the most significant major drug interaction concern is the decreased activation of clopidogrel when taken together with omeprazole.[29] Although still controversial,[30] this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent these events. This interaction is possible because omeprazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.[31] Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug that partially depends on CYP2C19 for conversion to its active form. Inhibition of CYP2C19 may block the activation of clopidogrel, which could reduce its effects.[32][33] Almost all benzodiazepines are metabolised by the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 pathways, and inhibition of these enzymes results in a higher AUC (i.e., the total effect over time of a given dose). Other examples of drugs dependent on CYP3A4 for their metabolism are escitalopram,[34] warfarin,[35] oxycodone, tramadol, and oxymorphone. The concentrations of these drugs may ...
... was first prepared as AH19065 by John Bradshaw in the summer of 1977 in the Ware research laboratories of Allen & Hanburys, part of the Glaxo organization.[36][37] Its development was a response to the first in class histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, developed by Sir James Black at Smith, Kline and French, and launched in the United Kingdom as Tagamet in November 1976. Both companies would eventually become merged as GlaxoSmithKline following a sequence of mergers and acquisitions starting with the integration of Allen & Hanbury's Ltd and Glaxo to form Glaxo Group Research in 1979, and ultimately with the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham in 2000. Ranitidine was the result of a rational drug-design process using what was by then a fairly refined model of the histamine H2 receptor and quantitative structure-activity relationships. Glaxo refined the model further by replacing the imidazole ring of cimetidine with a furan ring with a nitrogen-containing ...
Some studies have shown a correlation between use of PPIs and Clostridium difficile infections. While the data are contradictory and controversial, the FDA had sufficient concern to include a warning about this adverse effect on the label of PPI drugs.[25] Concerns have also been raised about spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in older people taking PPIs and in people with irritable bowel syndrome taking PPIs; both types of infections arise in these populations due to underlying conditions and it is not clear if this is a class effect of PPIs.[25] PPIs may predispose an individual to developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or fungal overgrowth.[30][31] Long-term use of PPIs is associated with the development of benign polyps from fundic glands (which is distinct from fundic gland polyposis); these polyps do not cause cancer and resolve when PPIs are discontinued. There is no association between PPI use and cancer[25] or pre-cancer.[32] There is concern that use of PPIs may mask gastric ...
... , sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid.[1] It is used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.[2] Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).[3] It is taken by mouth.[1] Onset is over a few hours and effects last up to a couple of days.[1] Common side effects include constipation, abdominal pain, and nausea.[1][4] Serious side effects may include osteoporosis, low blood magnesium, Clostridium difficile infection, and pneumonia.[1][4] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is of unclear safety.[5] It works by blocking H+/K+-ATPase in the parietal cells of the stomach.[1] Lansoprazole was patented in 1984 and came into medical use in 1992.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[2] A one month supply, in the United Kingdom, costs the NHS less than £5, as of 2019[update].[2] In the United States, the wholesale cost of this amount is about $5.40, as of ...
... (INN,[1] USAN, codenamed AH25352) is a long-acting competitive H2 receptor antagonist which was under development as an antiulcerant by Glaxo (now GlaxoSmithKline).[2] It was planned to be a follow-up compound to ranitidine (Zantac).[3] When taken in doses of 600 mg twice daily it induced virtually 24-hour gastric anacidity[4] thus closely resembling the antisecretory effect of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole.[5] Its development was terminated in 1989[6] from phase III clinical trials based on the appearance of carcinoid tumors in long-term toxicity testing in rodents.[7] ...
InChI=1S/C22H23FN4/c1-14-15(2)24-22(25-19-10-8-18(23)9-11-19)26-21(14)27-13-12-17-6-4-5-7-20(17)16(27)3/h4-11,16H,12-13H2,1-3H3,(H,24,25,26 ...
... is a tetracycline antibiotic. Tetracycline is N-Mannich base prodrug that is prepared from tetracycline by ...
... is a tetracycline antibiotic. It is used as a precursor in the industrial synthesis of doxycycline hyclate. It has ...
Most studies in tetracyclines and CMTs showed that they can inhibit MMP activity. One CMT called COL-3 or metastat has been ... Tetracyclines are antibiotics that also exhibit MMP inhibitory activity. They chelate Zn2+ ion, thereby inhibiting MMP activity ... Doxycycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline that has been studied for dental and medical applications. Its effects on diseases ... Advantages of CMT over conventional tetracyclines are that chronic use does not result in gastrointestinal toxicity and higher ...
Tetracycline Consumption in Prehistory. In Tetracyclines in Biology, Chemistry and Medicine. M. Nelson, W. Hillen, and R.A. ... Tetracycline Labeled Human Bone from Prehistoric Sudanese Nubia (A.D. 350). Science 209:1532 1534. Peter Farb and George J. ... Spectroscopic Characterization of Tetracycline in Skeletal Remains of an Ancient Population from Sudanese Nubia 350CE-550CE. ...
... (INN) is a tetracycline antibiotic. It is used topically (i.e. for skin infections) as it is totally insoluble in ...
Once the KRAB domain was fused to the tetracycline repressor (TetR), the TetR-KRAB fusion proteins were the first engineered ... Deuschle U, Meyer WK, Thiesen HJ (April 1995). "Tetracycline-reversible silencing of eukaryotic promoters". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 ...
Improvement with tetracyclines is usually seen after 4 days and significantly so after 2 weeks. Most commonly in women between ... These include tetracycline, doxycycline, and erythromycin. Erythromycin may be used as a cream. Doxycycline is most often the ... Treatment is typically by stopping topical steroids, changing cosmetics, and in more severe cases, taking tetracyclines by ...
Behal V (1987). "The tetracycline fermentation and its regulation". CRC Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 5: 295-318. Biology portal v t e ... This enzyme participates in tetracycline biosynthesis and biosynthesis of type ii polyketide products. ...
Tetracycline-class antibiotics are most effective. These can, however, induce a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in over half those ...
Tetracycline may also trigger the condition. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and a high intracranial pressure found during a ... long-term tetracycline antibiotics (for a variety of skin conditions) and hormonal contraceptives. There are numerous other ...